How to format your references using the New Testament Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for New Testament Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stremlau, M. ‘GE Prize-winning essay. Why Old World monkeys are resistant to HIV-1’. Science (New York, N.Y.) 318, no. 5856 (2007): 1565–66.
A journal article with 2 authors
Xu, G., and G. Long. ‘Universal nonadiabatic geometric gates in two-qubit decoherence-free subspaces’. Scientific Reports 4 (2014): 6814.
A journal article with 3 authors
Watanabe, T., J. E. Náñez, and Y. Sasaki. ‘Perceptual learning without perception’. Nature 413, no. 6858 (2001): 844–48.
A journal article with 10 or more authors
Polade, S. D., D. W. Pierce, D. R. Cayan, A. Gershunov, and M. D. Dettinger. ‘The key role of dry days in changing regional climate and precipitation regimes’. Scientific Reports 4 (2014): 4364.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ketring, K. L., and M. B. Glaze. Atlas of Feline Ophthalmology. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., 2012.
An edited book
Debnath, M. Molecular Diagnostics: Promises and Possibilities. Edited by G. B. K. S. Prasad and P. S. Bisen. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Maiorca, D., D. Ariu, I. Corona, and G. Giacinto. ‘An Evasion Resilient Approach to the Detection of Malicious PDF Files’. Pages 68–85 in Information Systems Security and Privacy: First International Conference, ICISSP 2015, Angers, France, February 9-11, 2015, Revised Selected Papers. Edited by O. Camp, E. Weippl, C. Bidan, and E. Aïmeur. Communications in Computer and Information Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for New Testament Studies.

Blog post
Fang, J. ‘Astronomers Detect Mysterious Signal 240 Million Light-Years From Earth’. IFLScience. IFLScience, June 25, 2014. No pages. Cited 30 October 2018. Online:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Digital Television Transition: Preliminary Information on Initial Consumer Education Efforts. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, September 19, 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pham, H. D. ‘Determination of Default Probability in Auto Finance through Predictive Analytics’. Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gordon, M. R., and E. Schmitt. ‘Wrestling With North Korea, Trump Finds Perilous Options’. New York Times, August 11, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference M. Stremlau, ‘GE Prize-winning essay. Why Old World monkeys are resistant to HIV-1’, Science 318 5856 (2007): 1565–66, Online:
This sentence cites two references M. Stremlau, ‘GE Prize-winning essay. Why Old World monkeys are resistant to HIV-1’, Science 318 5856 (2007): 1565–66, Online:; G. Xu and G. Long, ‘Universal nonadiabatic geometric gates in two-qubit decoherence-free subspaces’, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014): 6814, Online:

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors:
  • Three authors:
  • 4 or more authors: S. D. Polade et al., ‘The key role of dry days in changing regional climate and precipitation regimes’, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014): 4364, Online:

About the journal

Full journal titleNew Testament Studies
AbbreviationNew Testam. Stud.
ISSN (print)0028-6885
ISSN (online)1469-8145
Religious studies

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