How to format your references using the New Testament Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for New Testament Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cruz, M. ‘Black holes. Inescapable pull. Introduction’. Science (New York, N.Y.) 337, no. 6094 (2012): 535.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kelley, K. A., and E. Cottrell. ‘Water and the oxidation state of subduction zone magmas’. Science (New York, N.Y.) 325, no. 5940 (2009): 605–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Melton, C., R. L. Judson, and R. Blelloch. ‘Opposing microRNA families regulate self-renewal in mouse embryonic stem cells’. Nature 463, no. 7281 (2010): 621–26.
A journal article with 10 or more authors
Womelsdorf, T., P. Fries, P. P. Mitra, and R. Desimone. ‘Gamma-band synchronization in visual cortex predicts speed of change detection’. Nature 439, no. 7077 (2006): 733–36.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sinclair, E. Volatility Trading. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2013.
An edited book
Heege, H. J., ed. Precision in Crop Farming: Site Specific Concepts and Sensing Methods: Applications and Results. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Henriksen, F. L., P. Schorling, B. Hansen, H. Schakow, and M. L. Larsen. ‘FirstAED Emergency Dispatch, Global Positioning of First Responders with Distinct Roles - A Solution to Reduce the Response Times and Ensuring Early Defibrillation in the Rural Area Langeland’. Pages 36–45 in Safe and Secure Cities: 5th International Conference on Well-Being in the Information Society, WIS 2014, Turku, Finland, August 18-20, 2014. Proceedings. Edited by K. Saranto, M. Castrén, T. Kuusela, S. Hyrynsalmi, and S. Ojala. Communications in Computer and Information Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2014.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for New Testament Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, E. ‘Dr. Oz Admits “Miracle” Diet Products He Advocates Are Pseudoscience’. IFLScience. IFLScience, June 18, 2014. No pages. Cited 30 October 2018. Online:‘miracle’-diet-products-he-advocates-are-pseudoscience/.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. The Cost Of Aerospace Ground Equipment Could Be Reduced. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, September 11, 1974.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ready, C. ‘Preventing childhood obesity in foster children: A grant proposal’. Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara, S. ‘Creatures Great, Small and Imagined’. New York Times, April 6, 2014.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference M. Cruz, ‘Black holes. Inescapable pull. Introduction’, Science 337 6094 (2012): 535, Online:
This sentence cites two references M. Cruz, ‘Black holes. Inescapable pull. Introduction’, Science 337 6094 (2012): 535, Online:; K. A. Kelley and E. Cottrell, ‘Water and the oxidation state of subduction zone magmas’, Science 325 5940 (2009): 605–7, Online:

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors:
  • Three authors:
  • 4 or more authors: T. Womelsdorf et al., ‘Gamma-band synchronization in visual cortex predicts speed of change detection’, Nature 439 7077 (2006): 733–36, Online:

About the journal

Full journal titleNew Testament Studies
AbbreviationNew Testam. Stud.
ISSN (print)0028-6885
ISSN (online)1469-8145
Religious studies

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