How to format your references using the New Testament Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for New Testament Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Byatt, A. S. ‘Fiction informed by science’. Nature 434, no. 7031 (2005): 294–97.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sahin, M., and M. Sur. ‘Genes, circuits, and precision therapies for autism and related neurodevelopmental disorders’. Science (New York, N.Y.) 350, no. 6263 (2015).
A journal article with 3 authors
Batson, P. E., N. Dellby, and O. L. Krivanek. ‘Sub-ångstrom resolution using aberration corrected electron optics’. Nature 418, no. 6898 (2002): 617–20.
A journal article with 10 or more authors
Turner, D. L., L. B. Wilson 3rd, T. Z. Liu, I. J. Cohen, S. J. Schwartz, A. Osmane, J. F. Fennell, J. H. Clemmons, J. B. Blake, et al. ‘Autogenous and efficient acceleration of energetic ions upstream of Earth’s bow shock’. Nature 561, no. 7722 (2018): 206–10.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bisgaard, S., and M. Kulahci. Time Series Analysis and Forecasting by Example: Bisgaard/Time Series by Example. Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2011.
An edited book
Khalbuss, W. E. Cytopathology of Soft Tissue and Bone Lesions. Edited by A. V. Parwani. Vol. 9. Essentials in Cytopathology. Boston, MA: Springer US, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Accattoli, B., and D. Kesner. ‘The Permutative λ-Calculus’. Pages 23–36 in Logic for Programming, Artificial Intelligence, and Reasoning: 18th International Conference, LPAR-18, Mérida, Venezuela, March 11-15, 2012. Proceedings. Edited by N. Bjørner and A. Voronkov. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2012.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for New Testament Studies.

Blog post
Taub, B. ‘2,000-Year-Old Human Skeleton Found On Antikythera Shipwreck’. IFLScience. IFLScience, September 20, 2016. No pages. Cited 30 October 2018. Online:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Getting the New Communities Program Started: Progress and Problems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, November 15, 1974.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Alajmi, H. ‘Pre-Islamic Poetry and Speech Act Theory: Al-A`shá, Bishr ibn Abī Khāzim, and al-Hujayjah’. Doctoral dissertation, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Herrman, J. ‘In Media Company Advertising, Sponsored Content Is Becoming King’. New York Times, July 25, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference A. S. Byatt, ‘Fiction informed by science’, Nature 434 7031 (2005): 294–97, Online:
This sentence cites two references A. S. Byatt, ‘Fiction informed by science’, Nature 434 7031 (2005): 294–97, Online:; M. Sahin and M. Sur, ‘Genes, circuits, and precision therapies for autism and related neurodevelopmental disorders’, Science 350 6263 (2015), n.p. Online:

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors:
  • Three authors:
  • 4 or more authors: D. L. Turner et al., ‘Autogenous and efficient acceleration of energetic ions upstream of Earth’s bow shock’, Nature 561 7722 (2018): 206–10.

About the journal

Full journal titleNew Testament Studies
AbbreviationNew Testam. Stud.
ISSN (print)0028-6885
ISSN (online)1469-8145
Religious studies

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