How to format your references using the New Testament Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for New Testament Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Willner, I. ‘Tech.Sight. Bioelectronics. Biomaterials for sensors, fuel cells, and circuitry’. Science (New York, N.Y.) 298, no. 5602 (2002): 2407–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Salinga, M., and M. Wuttig. ‘Applied physics. Phase-change memories on a diet’. Science (New York, N.Y.) 332, no. 6029 (2011): 543–44.
A journal article with 3 authors
Xiang, G. Y., H. F. Hofmann, and G. J. Pryde. ‘Optimal multi-photon phase sensing with a single interference fringe’. Scientific Reports 3 (2013): 2684.
A journal article with 10 or more authors
Schreiner, P., X. Chen, K. Husnjak, L. Randles, N. Zhang, S. Elsasser, D. Finley, I. Dikic, K. J. Walters, et al. ‘Ubiquitin docking at the proteasome through a novel pleckstrin-homology domain interaction’. Nature 453, no. 7194 (2008): 548–52.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Moeller, R. R. Executive’s Guide to IT Governance. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2013.
An edited book
Khalilpour, K. R. Community Energy Networks With Storage: Modeling Frameworks for Distributed Generation. Edited by A. Vassallo. Green Energy and Technology. Singapore: Springer, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Kim, S. J., and B. Diamond. ‘Endogenous Control of Dendritic Cell Activation by miRNA’. Pages 85–103 in MicroRNAs and Other Non-Coding RNAs in Inflammation. Edited by C. M. Greene. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for New Testament Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, E. ‘Keychain First Aid Kit Might Help Save The Bees’. IFLScience. IFLScience, September 18, 2014. No pages. Cited 30 October 2018. Online:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Tax System Modernization: Status of IRS’ Input Processing Initiative. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, December 12, 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Williams, K. ‘From Cribs to Crayons: A Study on the Use of Universal Curriculum and Assessment of Preschool Students and Teachers in the Classroom’. Doctoral dissertation, Lafayette, LA: University of Louisiana, 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sulcas, R. ‘Alla Sizova, Star Kirov Ballerina, 75’. New York Times, December 9, 2014.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleNew Testament Studies
AbbreviationNew Testam. Stud.
ISSN (print)0028-6885
ISSN (online)1469-8145
Religious studies

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