How to format your references using the New Testament Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for New Testament Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McCook, A. ‘Education: Rethinking PhDs’. Nature 472, no. 7343 (2011): 280–82.
A journal article with 2 authors
Seder, R. A., and A. V. Hill. ‘Vaccines against intracellular infections requiring cellular immunity’. Nature 406, no. 6797 (2000): 793–98.
A journal article with 3 authors
King, M. C., C. P. Lusk, and G. Blobel. ‘Karyopherin-mediated import of integral inner nuclear membrane proteins’. Nature 442, no. 7106 (2006): 1003–7.
A journal article with 10 or more authors
Kay, S., S. Hahn, E. Marois, G. Hause, and U. Bonas. ‘A bacterial effector acts as a plant transcription factor and induces a cell size regulator’. Science (New York, N.Y.) 318, no. 5850 (2007): 648–51.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stack, T., L. T. Ostrom, and C. A. Wilhelmsen. Occupational Ergonomics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2016.
An edited book
Stitik, T. P., ed. Injection Procedures: Osteoarthritis and Related Conditions. New York, NY: Springer, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Benjamin, R. A. ‘The Challenge of Galactic Cartography: Lessons from the Milky Way’. Pages 53–62 in Lessons from the Local Group: A Conference in Honour of David Block and Bruce Elmegreen. Edited by K. Freeman, B. Elmegreen, D. Block, and M. Woolway. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for New Testament Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, E. ‘How Likely Is a Zombie Apocalypse?’ IFLScience. IFLScience, October 24, 2014. No pages. Cited 30 October 2018. Online:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Land Management Systems: Status of BLM’s Actions to Improve Information Technology Management. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, February 24, 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Blankenship, K. ‘An Analysis of Illinois Public School Funding a Descriptive Comparison of Equity: 2005 v. 2015’. Doctoral dissertation, Edwardsville, IL: Southern Illinois University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander, S. ‘A Positive Approach To An Incurable Disease’. New York Times, November 8, 1999.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleNew Testament Studies
AbbreviationNew Testam. Stud.
ISSN (print)0028-6885
ISSN (online)1469-8145
Religious studies

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