How to format your references using the Science and Technology for the Built Environment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Science and Technology for the Built Environment (STBE). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Turner, M. 2013. Animal behaviour: brain food. Nature, 498(7455):446.
A journal article with 2 authors
Robertson, W. H., and M. A. Johnson. 2002. Chemistry. Caught in the act of dissolution. Science (New York, N.Y.), 298(5591):69.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rockman, M. V., S. S. Skrovanek, and L. Kruglyak. 2010. Selection at linked sites shapes heritable phenotypic variation in C. elegans. Science (New York, N.Y.), 330(6002):372–376.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Li, Y., Y. A. Samad, K. Polychronopoulou, S. M. Alhassan, and K. Liao. 2014. Highly electrically conductive nanocomposites based on polymer-infused graphene sponges. Scientific Reports, 4:4652.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Patterson, S. J., and J. M. Radtke. 2009. Strategic Communications for Nonprofit Organizations. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Gupta, P. 2014. Fuzzy Portfolio Optimization: Advances in Hybrid Multi-criteria Methodologies. (M. K. Mehlawat, M. Inuiguchi, & S. Chandra, Eds.) (Vol. 316). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Donegani, S. 2013. Il medico di medicina generale. In L. Bellardita, T. Magnani, & R. Valdagni (Eds.), Il tumore alla prostata: Paziente, familiari e medici: esperienze narrate (pp. 37–43). Milano: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Science and Technology for the Built Environment.

Blog post
Davis, J. 2017, May 31. Color-Changing Bacteria Could Be Used To Diagnose Gut Diseases From Poop.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1989. Railroad Safety: DOT Should Better Manage Its Hazardous Materials Inspection Program (No. RCED-90-43). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Othmanawny, G. 2017. Soaked and Unsoaked Performance of Crushed Gravel and Limestone Aggregates (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Searcey, D. 2017, May 6. Boko Haram Frees Taken Girls, Nigeria Says. New York Times, p. A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Turner 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Robertson and Johnson 2002; Turner 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Robertson and Johnson 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Li et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleScience and Technology for the Built Environment
AbbreviationSci. Technol. Built Environ.
ISSN (print)2374-4731
ISSN (online)2374-474X
ScopeFluid Flow and Transfer Processes
Building and Construction
Environmental Engineering

Other styles