How to format your references using the Science and Technology for the Built Environment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Science and Technology for the Built Environment (STBE). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fuyuno, I. 2006. Stuck in the middle. Nature, 442(7100):237.
A journal article with 2 authors
Reverter, D., and C. D. Lima. 2005. Insights into E3 ligase activity revealed by a SUMO-RanGAP1-Ubc9-Nup358 complex. Nature, 435(7042):687–692.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shen, H. Z., W. Wang, and X. X. Yi. 2014. Hall conductance and topological invariant for open systems. Scientific Reports, 4:6455.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Reilly, D. J., J. M. Taylor, J. R. Petta, C. M. Marcus, M. P. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard. 2008. Suppressing spin qubit dephasing by nuclear state preparation. Science (New York, N.Y.), 321(5890):817–821.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Afoakwa, E. O. 2016. Chocolate Science and Technology. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Nawrat, A., K. Simek, and A. Świerniak (Eds.). 2013. Advanced Technologies for Intelligent Systems of National Border Security (Vol. 440). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Han, I., and S.-T. Hou. 2016. Taiwan Taxi Company. In S.-T. Hou (Ed.), Social Innovation and Business in Taiwan (pp. 37–55). New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Science and Technology for the Built Environment.

Blog post
Davis, J. 2015, June 20. North Korea Claim to Have Cured AIDS, MERS, Ebola and SARS.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2000. GAO Report on Applying Agreed-Upon Procedures: Highway Trust Fund Excise Taxes (No. AIMD-00-82R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Williams, C. 2013. It’s not a beauty pageant!: An examination of leadership development through Alaska native pageants (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K. 2009, January 11. Downtown Dumplings. New York Times, p. NJ9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fuyuno 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Fuyuno 2006; Reverter and Lima 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Reverter and Lima 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Reilly et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleScience and Technology for the Built Environment
AbbreviationSci. Technol. Built Environ.
ISSN (print)2374-4731
ISSN (online)2374-474X
ScopeFluid Flow and Transfer Processes
Building and Construction
Environmental Engineering

Other styles