How to format your references using the Science and Technology for the Built Environment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Science and Technology for the Built Environment (STBE). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Spurgeon, D. 2003. Scientists call for Canada to boost polar-shelf funding. Nature, 421(6922):464.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hemberger, M., and R. Pedersen. 2010. Stem cells. Epigenome disruptors. Science (New York, N.Y.), 330(6004):598–599.
A journal article with 3 authors
Innocenti, P., E. H. Morrow, and D. K. Dowling. 2011. Experimental evidence supports a sex-specific selective sieve in mitochondrial genome evolution. Science (New York, N.Y.), 332(6031):845–848.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Genin, A., J. S. Jaffe, R. Reef, C. Richter, and P. J. S. Franks. 2005. Swimming against the flow: a mechanism of zooplankton aggregation. Science (New York, N.Y.), 308(5723):860–862.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Loveland, W. D., D. J. Morrissey, and G. T. Seaborg. 2005. Modern Nuclear Chemistry. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Reimer, P., P. M. Parizel, J. F. M. Meaney, and F. A. Stichnoth (Eds.). 2010. Clinical MR Imaging. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Blanchard, P., and D. Volchenkov. 2011. Embedding of Graphs in Probabilistic Euclidean Space. In D. Volchenkov (Ed.), Random Walks and Diffusions on Graphs and Databases: An Introduction (pp. 73–84). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Science and Technology for the Built Environment.

Blog post
Hale, T. 2015, November 4. The Insane Moment A Hippo Tried To Attack A Boat Tour.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1984. First-Year Implementation of the Federal Managers’ Financial Integrity Act in the Department of Education (No. HRD-84-49). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Baghdadi, M. 2012. A comparison of gender representation in English (EFL) and Arabic (AFL) textbooks in Iran: A critical discourse analysis (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. 2010, March 19. More Teams Would Ruin a Great Thing. New York Times, p. B14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Spurgeon 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Hemberger and Pedersen 2010; Spurgeon 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hemberger and Pedersen 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Genin et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleScience and Technology for the Built Environment
AbbreviationSci. Technol. Built Environ.
ISSN (print)2374-4731
ISSN (online)2374-474X
ScopeFluid Flow and Transfer Processes
Building and Construction
Environmental Engineering

Other styles