How to format your references using the Science and Technology for the Built Environment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Science and Technology for the Built Environment (STBE). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Allan, V. 2014. Cell biology. One, two, three, cytoplasmic dynein is go! Science (New York, N.Y.), 345(6194):271–272.
A journal article with 2 authors
Grande, C., and N. H. Patel. 2009. Nodal signalling is involved in left-right asymmetry in snails. Nature, 457(7232):1007–1011.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wolfe, N. D., C. P. Dunavan, and J. Diamond. 2007. Origins of major human infectious diseases. Nature, 447(7142):279–283.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chen, J. G., R. M. Crooks, L. C. Seefeldt, K. L. Bren, R. M. Bullock, M. Y. Darensbourg, P. L. Holland, B. Hoffman, M. J. Janik, A. K. Jones, M. G. Kanatzidis, P. King, K. M. Lancaster, S. V. Lymar, P. Pfromm, W. F. Schneider, and R. R. Schrock. 2018. Beyond fossil fuel-driven nitrogen transformations. Science (New York, N.Y.), 360(6391).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Southard, T. E., S. D. Marshall, and L. L. Bonner. 2015. Orthodontics in the Vertical Dimension. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Stanislas, M., J. Jimenez, and I. Marusic (Eds.). 2011. Progress in Wall Turbulence: Understanding and Modeling: Proceedings of the WALLTURB International Workshop held in Lille, France, April 21-23, 2009 (Vol. 14). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Velarde, G., and N. C. Santamaría. 2006. KEY ASPECTS ON THE NON-PROLIFERATION MEASURES. In S. Apikyan & D. Diamond (Eds.), Countering Nuclear and Radiological Terrorism (pp. 85–94). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Science and Technology for the Built Environment.

Blog post
Fang, J. 2014, May 15. Tiny Cousin of Diplodocus found in South America.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2013. Transportation Worker Identification Credential: Card Reader Pilot Results Are Unreliable; Security Benefits Should Be Reassessed (No. GAO-13-610T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zacher, B. 2013. The roles of electrode contacts in organic photovoltaics (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schaub, M. 2017, July 13. Rich Is Rabbit. New York Times, p. BR11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Allan 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Allan 2014; Grande and Patel 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Grande and Patel 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Chen et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleScience and Technology for the Built Environment
AbbreviationSci. Technol. Built Environ.
ISSN (print)2374-4731
ISSN (online)2374-474X
ScopeFluid Flow and Transfer Processes
Building and Construction
Environmental Engineering

Other styles