How to format your references using the Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics Discussions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics Discussions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Huang, A. S.-H.: Follow your nose, Nature, 428(6979), 221–222, 2004.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bianchi, A. and Shore, D.: Molecular biology. Refined view of the ends, Science, 320(5881), 1301–1302, 2008.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rieping, W., Habeck, M. and Nilges, M.: Inferential structure determination, Science, 309(5732), 303–306, 2005.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Evan, A. T., Vimont, D. J., Heidinger, A. K., Kossin, J. P. and Bennartz, R.: The role of aerosols in the evolution of tropical North Atlantic Ocean temperature anomalies, Science, 324(5928), 778–781, 2009.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Moe, T. M. and Chubb, J. E.: Liberating Learning, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA, USA., 2009.
An edited book
Masferrer, A. and García-Sánchez, E., Eds.: Human Dignity of the Vulnerable in the Age of Rights: Interdisciplinary Perspectives, Springer International Publishing, Cham., 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Lambrechts, J. and Sinha, S.: The Sub-systems of an Energy Harvesting Device: Focus on RFID Fundamentals, in Microsensing Networks for Sustainable Cities, edited by S. Sinha, pp. 135–163, Springer International Publishing, Cham., 2016.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics Discussions.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: 10 Incredible Chemical Reaction GIFs Explained, IFLScience [online] Available from: (Accessed 30 October 2018), 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: ADP Systems: Examinations of Non-Federal Hospital Information Systems, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC., 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Diaz, D.: A discrete hollow—Los Angeles, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA., 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K.: Finding Farms To Share In, New York Times, 24th August, NJ6, 2008.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Huang, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Bianchi and Shore, 2008; Huang, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bianchi and Shore, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Evan et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleNonlinear Processes in Geophysics Discussions
AbbreviationNonlin. Process. Geophys. Discuss.
ISSN (online)2198-5634

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