How to format your references using the Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics Discussions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics Discussions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P.: Welcome competition, Nature, 432(7018), 783, 2004.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chang, J. B. and Ferrell, J. E., Jr: Mitotic trigger waves and the spatial coordination of the Xenopus cell cycle, Nature, 500(7464), 603–607, 2013.
A journal article with 3 authors
Coulson, T., Lindström, J. and Cotgreave, P.: Ecology. Seeking new recruits, Science, 295(5562), 2023–2024, 2002.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Levsky, J. M., Shenoy, S. M., Pezo, R. C. and Singer, R. H.: Single-cell gene expression profiling, Science, 297(5582), 836–840, 2002.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hunter, D. A.: A Practical Guide to Critical Thinking, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ., 2009.
An edited book
Deville, M. O.: Mathematical Modeling for Complex Fluids and Flows, edited by T. B. Gatski, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg., 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Demeuse, M. and Baye, A.: Measuring and Comparing the Equity of Education Systems in Europe, in Governance and Performance of Education Systems, edited by N. C. Soguel and P. Jaccard, pp. 85–106, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht., 2007.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics Discussions.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Stephen Hawking Announces $100 Million Pledge To Search For Intelligent Extraterrestrial Life, IFLScience, 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: B-2 Bomber: Acquisition Cost Estimates, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC., 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kashyap, S. K.: Bit Error Rate Performance of 4x2 Space-Time MIMO-OFDM Conjugate Cancellation Techniques, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA., 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J.: Early Emmy Leads For ‘S.N.L.’ and HBO, New York Times, 11th September, C3, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Chang and Ferrell, 2013; Smaglik, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chang and Ferrell, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Levsky et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleNonlinear Processes in Geophysics Discussions
AbbreviationNonlin. Process. Geophys. Discuss.
ISSN (online)2198-5634

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