How to format your references using the Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics Discussions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics Discussions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tromans, A.: Entomology. The alkaloid defence, Nature, 409, 28, 2001.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hill, R. A. and Barton, R. A.: Psychology: red enhances human performance in contests, Nature, 435, 293, 2005.
A journal article with 3 authors
Roy, M., Jordan, T. H., and Pederson, J.: Colorado Plateau magmatism and uplift by warming of heterogeneous lithosphere, Nature, 459, 978–982, 2009.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Hammond, S. M., Bernstein, E., Beach, D., and Hannon, G. J.: An RNA-directed nuclease mediates post-transcriptional gene silencing in Drosophila cells, Nature, 404, 293–296, 2000.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Todinov, M. T.: Reliability and Risk Models, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2005.
An edited book
Modgil, S., Oren, N., and Toni, F. (Eds.): Theorie and Applications of Formal Argumentation: First International Workshop, TAFA 2011. Barcelona, Spain, July 16-17, 2011, Revised Selected Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, X, 281 p pp., 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Gupta, S., Kamali, S., and López-Ortiz, A.: On Advice Complexity of the k-server Problem under Sparse Metrics, in: Structural Information and Communication Complexity: 20th International Colloquium, SIROCCO 2013, Ischia, Italy, July 1-3, 2013, Revised Selected Papers, edited by: Moscibroda, T. and Rescigno, A. A., Springer International Publishing, Cham, 55–67, 2013.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics Discussions.

Blog post
Comets’ Nuclei Break Up And Make Up Over Their Life Time:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Delays in Critical Air Traffic Control Modernization Projects Require Increased FAA Attention to Existing Systems, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Best, T. F.: Evaluation of effectiveness, reproducibility, and repeatability of using dentition for estimating cattle age, Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L.: Justices to Hear Case Testing Rule on Witness, New York Times, 12th January, A12, 2008.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Tromans, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Tromans, 2001; Hill and Barton, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hill and Barton, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Hammond et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleNonlinear Processes in Geophysics Discussions
AbbreviationNonlin. Process. Geophys. Discuss.
ISSN (online)2198-5634

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