How to format your references using the New Solutions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for New Solutions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A. Klug, “Structural biology and biochemistry. Retrospective: Max Perutz (1914-2002),” Science (New York, N.Y.) 295(5564) (2002): 2382–2383.
A journal article with 2 authors
D. R. Littman and H. Singh, “Immunology. Asymmetry and immune memory,” Science (New York, N.Y.) 315(5819) (2007): 1673–1674.
A journal article with 3 authors
Y. Chen, J. J. Emerson, and T. M. Martin, “Evolutionary genomics: codon volatility does not detect selection,” Nature 433(7023) (2005): E6-7; discussion E7-8.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M. Plank et al., “An analysis and validation pipeline for large-scale RNAi-based screens,” Scientific reports 3 (2013): 1076.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stephanie Hammer, Architects of Electronic Trading (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2013).
An edited book
Karoly Bezdek, Antoine Deza, and Yinyu Ye, eds., Discrete Geometry and Optimization, 69 (Heidelberg: Springer International Publishing, 2013).
A chapter in an edited book
John I. Pitt and Ailsa D. Hocking, “Methods for Isolation, Enumeration and Identification,” in Fungi and Food Spoilage, ed Ailsa D. Hocking (Boston, MA: Springer US, 2009), 19–52.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for New Solutions.

Blog post
Elise Andrew, “Replacing The Moon With Other Planets.” . (accessed: 30-Oct-2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Internet Protocol Version 6: Federal Agencies Need to Plan for Transition and Manage Security Risks, 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sean Edmund Goodison, “The undiscovered country: Homicide, dynamic change, and deterrence in Washington, D.C. Neighborhoods, 1998-2006,” (Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD, 2014).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. W. Walsh, “The Bonds That Broke Puerto Rico,” New York Times (2015): B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNew Solutions
AbbreviationNew Solut.
ISSN (print)1048-2911
ISSN (online)1541-3772
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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