How to format your references using the New Solutions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for New Solutions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. S. Fuhrer, “Physics. Critical mass in graphene,” Science (New York, N.Y.) 340(6139) (2013): 1413–1414.
A journal article with 2 authors
S. B. Joseph and R. Swanstrom, “HIV/AIDS. A fitness bottleneck in HIV-1 transmission,” Science (New York, N.Y.) 345(6193) (2014): 136–137.
A journal article with 3 authors
J. P. Blomster, H. Neff, and M. D. Glascock, “Olmec pottery production and export in ancient Mexico determined through elemental analysis,” Science (New York, N.Y.) 307(5712) (2005): 1068–1072.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
K. Shen et al., “Ordered macro-microporous metal-organic framework single crystals,” Science (New York, N.Y.) 359(6372) (2018): 206–210.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Harry T. Lawless, Quantitative Sensory Analysis (Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, 2013).
An edited book
Gianfranco Ciardo and Philippe Darondeau, eds., Applications and Theory of Petri Nets 2005: 26th International Conference, ICATPN 2005, Miami, USA, June 20-25, 2005. Proceedings, 3536 (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2005).
A chapter in an edited book
Paul Lokuciejewski and Peter Marwedel, “WCET-Aware Assembly Level Optimizations,” in Worst-Case Execution Time Aware Compilation Techniques for Real-Time Systems, ed Peter Marwedel (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2011), 131–157.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for New Solutions.

Blog post
Elise Andrew, “Scientists Develop Bioplastic From Food Scraps.” . (accessed: 30-Oct-2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Distance Education: Challenges for Minority Serving Institutions and Implications for Federal Education Policy, 2003.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Joseph C. Holler, “A phenomenological case study of finding meaning through the developmental nature of a doctoral program in organization change,” (Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA, 2015).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Brantley, “A Revenge Tragedy Colored by Brecht,” New York Times (2017): C5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNew Solutions
AbbreviationNew Solut.
ISSN (print)1048-2911
ISSN (online)1541-3772
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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