How to format your references using the New Solutions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for New Solutions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D. Koen, “Nuts and bolts. Networking for introverts,” Nature 434(7029) (2005): 120.
A journal article with 2 authors
N. S. C. van Oers and Z. J. Chen, “Cell biology. Kinasing and clipping down the NF-kappa B trail,” Science (New York, N.Y.) 308(5718) (2005): 65–66.
A journal article with 3 authors
P. Libby, P. M. Ridker, and G. K. Hansson, “Progress and challenges in translating the biology of atherosclerosis,” Nature 473(7347) (2011): 317–325.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
P. A. Johnson et al., “Effects of acoustic waves on stick-slip in granular media and implications for earthquakes,” Nature 451(7174) (2008): 57–60.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fan Li, Developing Chemical Information Systems (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2006).
An edited book
Abel Chikanda, Jonathan Crush, and Margaret Walton-Roberts, eds., Diasporas, Development and Governance, 1st ed. 2016. 5 (Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016).
A chapter in an edited book
Olivier Gheysens and Sanjiv S. Gambhir, “Studying molecular and cellular processes in the intact organism,” in Imaging in Drug Discovery and Early Clinical Trials, eds Paul L. Herrling, Alex Matter, and Markus Rudin (Basel: Birkhäuser, 2005), 117–150.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for New Solutions.

Blog post
Elise Andrew, “Seeing The Universe Through Spectroscopic Eyes.” . (accessed: 30-Oct-2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, International Broadcasting: Downsizing and Relocating Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Scott P. Marchek, “A quantitative investigation of the Technology Obsolescence Model (TOM) factors that influence the decision to replace obsolete systems,” (Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, Minneapolis, MN, 2015).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. W. Walsh, “Audit Finds Errors in Calculating Pensions in Bankruptcies,” New York Times (2011): B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNew Solutions
AbbreviationNew Solut.
ISSN (print)1048-2911
ISSN (online)1541-3772
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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