How to format your references using the New Solutions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for New Solutions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Z.-X. Luo, “Evolution: Tooth structure re-engineered,” Nature 512(7512) (2014): 36–37.
A journal article with 2 authors
A. Batistatou and K. Charalabopoulos, “The picture of Oscar X,” Nature 455(7214) (2008): 834.
A journal article with 3 authors
A. Chrysostomou, P. W. Lucas, and J. H. Hough, “Circular polarimetry reveals helical magnetic fields in the young stellar object HH 135-136,” Nature 450(7166) (2007): 71–73.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A. Kamlapure et al., “Emergence of nanoscale inhomogeneity in the superconducting state of a homogeneously disordered conventional superconductor,” Scientific reports 3 (2013): 2979.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sergio Petrozzi, Practical Instrumental Analysis (Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2012).
An edited book
Hoang Pham, ed., Springer Handbook of Engineering Statistics (London: Springer, 2006).
A chapter in an edited book
The Ziggurat Group and Brenda Smith Myles, “Building Social Skills Instruction for Children with Asperger Syndrome,” in Asperger Syndrome: A Guide for Professionals and Families, eds Raymond W. DuCharme and Thomas P. Gullotta (Boston, MA: Springer US, 2013), 91–111.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for New Solutions.

Blog post
Elise Andrew, “Amazingly Intricate Spider Web Uses Suspended Rock As An Anchor.” . (accessed: 30-Oct-2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Year 2000 Computing Challenge: Education Taking Needed Actions But Work Remains, 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Angela Nicole DeLutis-Eichenberger, “El proceso semiótico de un héroe decimonónico: Un estudio en torno a los ‘textos-tumbas’ de Andrés Bello,” (Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD, 2010).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Greenhouse, “Justices, Already Split, Commence Work on a Polarizing New Docket,” New York Times (2007): A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNew Solutions
AbbreviationNew Solut.
ISSN (print)1048-2911
ISSN (online)1541-3772
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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