How to format your references using the New Solutions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for New Solutions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
P. Cramer, “Molecular biology. Self-correcting messages,” Science (New York, N.Y.) 313(5786) (2006): 447–448.
A journal article with 2 authors
F. Straneo and P. Heimbach, “North Atlantic warming and the retreat of Greenland’s outlet glaciers,” Nature 504(7478) (2013): 36–43.
A journal article with 3 authors
B. Wang, S. Xu, and L. Wu, “Intensified Arabian Sea tropical storms,” Nature 489(7416) (2012): E1-2; discussion E2-3.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
G. Kaur et al., “Synthesis, cytotoxicity, and hydroxyapatite formation in 27-Tris-SBF for sol-gel based CaO-P2O5-SiO2-B2O3-ZnO bioactive glasses,” Scientific reports 4 (2014): 4392.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Virginia Woolf, The Years (Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2012).
An edited book
Fabio Bagarello, Roberto Passante, and Camillo Trapani, eds., Non-Hermitian Hamiltonians in Quantum Physics: Selected Contributions from the 15th International Conference on Non-Hermitian Hamiltonians in Quantum Physics, Palermo, Italy, 18-23 May 2015, 184 (Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016).
A chapter in an edited book
Anton Kutikhin, Elena Brusina, and Arseniy E. Yuzhalin, “Hepatitis Viruses, Atherosclerosis, and Related Diseases,” in Viruses and Atherosclerosis, eds Elena Brusina and Arseniy E. Yuzhalin (New York, NY: Springer, 2013), 49–63.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for New Solutions.

Blog post
Ben Taub, “Being The Victim Of Sexual Cannibalism Is A Good Investment For Male Mantises.” . (accessed: 30-Oct-2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Student Loans: Oversight of Servicemembers’ Interest Rate Cap Could Be Strengthened, 2016.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jenifer Mai, “College Application Behaviors: Factors Impacting the College Choices of High School Seniors,” (Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2017).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. W. Walsh and L. Story, “U.S. Inquiry Said to Focus On a Fund In California,” New York Times (2011): B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNew Solutions
AbbreviationNew Solut.
ISSN (print)1048-2911
ISSN (online)1541-3772
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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