How to format your references using the Hong Kong Journal of Radiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hong Kong Journal of Radiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Richmond CR. How neptunium led to the birth of plutonium. Nature. 2000;406:455.
A journal article with 2 authors
Buschman TJ, Miller EK. Top-down versus bottom-up control of attention in the prefrontal and posterior parietal cortices. Science. 2007;315:1860–1862.
A journal article with 3 authors
Freckleton RP, Sutherland WJ, Watkinson AR. Ecology. Deciding the future of GM crops in Europe. Science. 2003;302:994–996.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Kaka S, Pufall MR, Rippard WH, Silva TJ, Russek SE, Katine JA. Mutual phase-locking of microwave spin torque nano-oscillators. Nature. 2005;437:389–392.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hillis DR, Duvall JB. Improving Profitability through Green Manufacturing. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Pecharsky VK. Fundamentals of Powder Diffraction and Structural Characterization of Materials. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Mumford-Valenzuela CL. A Simple Approach to Evolutionary Multiobjective Optimization. In: Abraham A, Jain L, Goldberg R, editors. Evolutionary Multiobjective Optimization: Theoretical Advances and Applications. London: Springer; 2005. p. 55–79.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hong Kong Journal of Radiology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. Professor Brian Cox: “It’s Very Difficult To Argue With An Idiot” [Internet]. IFLScience. 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Need To Revise Office of Saline Water’s Restrictive Patent Policy. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1974.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mitra A. Sigma Factor N: A Novel Regulator of Acid Resistance and Locus of Enterocyte Effacement in Escherichia coli O157:H7. 2014;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hussey K. Troubling Text Before a Couple Vanished in Connecticut: ‘Did You Hurt Mom?’ New York Times. 2015;A33.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleHong Kong Journal of Radiology
AbbreviationHong Kong J. Radiol.
ISSN (print)2223-6619
ISSN (online)2307-4620
ScopeRadiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Other styles