How to format your references using the New Microbes and New Infections citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for New Microbes and New Infections. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Barabási A-L. The origin of bursts and heavy tails in human dynamics. Nature 2005;435:207–11.
A journal article with 2 authors
Begun DR, Ward CV. Comment on “Pierolapithecus catalaunicus, a new Middle Miocene great ape from Spain.” Science 2005;308:203; author reply 203.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lin X, Fauqué B, Behnia K. SOLID-STATE PHYSICS. Scalable T2 resistivity in a small single-component Fermi surface. Science 2015;349:945–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kiel MJ, He S, Ashkenazi R, Gentry SN, Teta M, Kushner JA, et al. Haematopoietic stem cells do not asymmetrically segregate chromosomes or retain BrdU. Nature 2007;449:238–42.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bojowald M. The Universe: A View from Classical and Quantum Gravity. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2012.
An edited book
Gupta G, Peña R, editors. Logic-Based Program Synthesis and Transformation: 23rd International Symposium, LOPSTR 2013, Madrid, Spain, September 18-19, 2013, Revised Selected Papers. vol. 8901. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Agarwal K, Chen X, Zhong Y. Application of Differential Evolution to a Two-Dimensional Inverse Scattering Problem. In: Qing A, Lee CK, editors. Differential Evolution in Electromagnetics, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010, p. 73–105.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for New Microbes and New Infections.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Amazing Finding Of Dunes On Rosetta’s Comet. IFLScience 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Surface Transportation: Actions Needed to Improve Documentation of Key Decisions in the TIGER Discretionary Grant Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rieger K. Phenomenological Exploration of the Characteristics of Successful Women Entrepreneurs. Doctoral dissertation. Northcentral University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M. THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: The Democrats; There They Go Again: Clinton and Gore Climb Back on Bus for a 3-Day Trip. New York Times 1992:A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNew Microbes and New Infections
AbbreviationNew Microbes New Infect.
ISSN (print)2052-2975

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