How to format your references using the New Microbes and New Infections citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for New Microbes and New Infections. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Romanowicz B. Geophysics. The thickness of tectonic plates. Science 2009;324:474–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Türkmen YE, Aggarwal VK. A simpler route for making nitrogen-alkene rings. [corrected]. Science 2014;343:33–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gubbins D, Jones AL, Finlay CC. Fall in Earth’s magnetic field is erratic. Science 2006;312:900–2.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kowalewski M, Hoffmeister AP, Baumiller TK, Bambach RK. Secondary evolutionary escalation between brachiopods and enemies of other prey. Science 2005;308:1774–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Padgett S. Profiling the Fraudster. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2014.
An edited book
Cucchiella F, Koh L, editors. Sustainable Future Energy Technology and Supply Chains: A Multi-perspective Analysis. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Zitt M. Sputum Tests and Exhaled NO in the Diagnosis and Monitoring of Asthma. In: Pawankar R, Holgate ST, Rosenwasser LJ, editors. Allergy Frontiers: Diagnosis and Health Economics, Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2009, p. 81–100.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for New Microbes and New Infections.

Blog post
Luntz S. Boxes For Owls Help Overcome Middle East Divisions. IFLScience 2017. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Activities of Washington Data Processing Center Statistical Research Service. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1970.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Grosso T. Exploring How Older Adults Who Qualify for the Association on Aging with Developmental Disabilities (AADD) Programs and Services Learn to Successfully Age in Place. Doctoral dissertation. Lindenwood University, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. Eyes on Supreme Court In Execution Case Tonight. New York Times 2007:A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNew Microbes and New Infections
AbbreviationNew Microbes New Infect.
ISSN (print)2052-2975

Other styles