How to format your references using the Cardiology and Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cardiology and Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Wolpert AJ. The future of electronic data. Nature. 2002;420:17–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Sheu Y-J, Stillman B. The Dbf4-Cdc7 kinase promotes S phase by alleviating an inhibitory activity in Mcm4. Nature. 2010;463:113–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Exadaktylos F, Espín AM, Brañas-Garza P. Experimental subjects are not different. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1213.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Fierro S, Seishima R, Nagano O, Saya H, Einaga Y. In vivo pH monitoring using boron doped diamond microelectrode and silver needles: application to stomach disorder diagnosis. Sci Rep. 2013;3:3257.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Rim CT, Mi C. Wireless Power Transfer for Electric Vehicles and Mobile Devices. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2017.
An edited book
1. Brogliato B. Dissipative Systems Analysis and Control: Theory and Applications. 2nd Edition. Maschke B, Lozano R, Egeland O, editors. London: Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Vasudevan N, Tardieu O, Dolby J, Edwards SA. Compile-Time Analysis and Specialization of Clocks in Concurrent Programs. In: Moor O de, Schwartzbach MI, editors. Compiler Construction: 18th International Conference, CC 2009, Held as Part of the Joint European Conferences on Theory and Practice of Software, ETAPS 2009, York, UK, March 22-29, 2009 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009. p. 48–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cardiology and Therapy.

Blog post
1. Luntz S. Schrodinger’s Algae Control Quantum Behavior [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. What Every Auditor Should Know About Computer Information Systems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1986 Jun. Report No.: 130454.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Carolina DS. A qualitative study of the healthcare experiences and health information acquisition of African American men [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Crow K. Bronze Star: Gregg LeFevre Is the City’s Busiest Public Sculptor. New York Times. 2003 Feb 16;148.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCardiology and Therapy
AbbreviationCardiol. Ther.
ISSN (print)2193-8261
ISSN (online)2193-6544
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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