How to format your references using the Cardiology and Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cardiology and Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Williams Q. Geophysics. Deep mantle matters. Science. 2014;344:800–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Stefankiewicz AR, Sanders JKM. Chemistry. Harmony of the self-assembled spheres. Science. 2010;328:1115–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Maurya SR, Chaturvedi D, Mahalakshmi R. Modulating lipid dynamics and membrane fluidity to drive rapid folding of a transmembrane barrel. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1989.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Aragoneses A, Perrone S, Sorrentino T, Torrent MC, Masoller C. Unveiling the complex organization of recurrent patterns in spiking dynamical systems. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4696.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Anderson JB, Johannesson R. Understanding Information Transmission. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
1. Chatterjee A, Yarlagadda S, Chakrabarti BK, editors. Econophysics of Wealth Distributions: Econophys-Kolkata I. Milano: Springer; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Jha KR, Singh G. Ring Resonator-Integrated Hemi-elliptical Lens Antenna. In: Singh G, editor. Terahertz Planar Antennas for Next Generation Communication. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 83–105.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cardiology and Therapy.

Blog post
1. Hale T. Why Do So Many People Sneeze When They Look At The Sun? IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Mass Transit: FTA Needs to Better Define and Assess Impact of Certain Policies on New Starts Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2004 Jun. Report No.: GAO-04-748.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Muehlhauser C. Perceived Criticism, Self-Criticism, and Disordered Eating Patterns in College Students [Doctoral dissertation]. [Edwardsville, IL]: Southern Illinois University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Knopper S. American Phoenix. New York Times. 2017 Sep 11;TR1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCardiology and Therapy
AbbreviationCardiol. Ther.
ISSN (print)2193-8261
ISSN (online)2193-6544
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Other styles