How to format your references using the Cardiology and Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cardiology and Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Heyworth MF. Sky was not the limit for music-loving Herschel. Nature. 2000;407:286.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Alexandrakis G, Poulos SΕ. An holistic approach to beach erosion vulnerability assessment. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6078.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Wang Z, Chakrabarty D, Kaplan DL. A debris disk around an isolated young neutron star. Nature. 2006;440:772–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Duggen S, Hoernle K, van den Bogaard P, Rüpke L, Morgan JP. Deep roots of the Messinian salinity crisis. Nature. 2003;422:602–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Weisberg HI. Willful Ignorance. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
1. Sakurai T, editor. The Hinode Mission. New York, NY: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Han L, Hancock ER, Wilson RC. Learning Generative Graph Prototypes Using Simplified von Neumann Entropy. In: Jiang X, Ferrer M, Torsello A, editors. Graph-Based Representations in Pattern Recognition: 8th IAPR-TC-15 International Workshop, GbRPR 2011, Münster, Germany, May 18-20, 2011 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. p. 42–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cardiology and Therapy.

Blog post
1. O`Callaghan J. This Ice Shelf Breaking From The Inside Out In West Antarctica Is Not Good News [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Biotechnology: Information on Prices of Genetically Modified Seeds in the United States and Argentina. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000 Jan. Report No.: RCED/NSIAD-00-55.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Woods BA. The Perceived Efficacy of an Empowerment Model of Youth Development among Vermont Educational Leaders [Doctoral dissertation]. [Columbus, OH]: Ohio State University; 2006.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Barker K, Shah PZ, Goldstein J, Silver-Greenberg J. From Class Clown to Manhattan Bomb Suspect. New York Times. 2016 Sep 24;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCardiology and Therapy
AbbreviationCardiol. Ther.
ISSN (print)2193-8261
ISSN (online)2193-6544
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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