How to format your references using the Cardiology and Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cardiology and Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Pagel M. Rise of the digital machine. Nature. 2008;452:699.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Evans JA, Foster JG. Metaknowledge. Science. 2011;331:721–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Bartels A, Heinecke D, Diddams SA. 10-GHz self-referenced optical frequency comb. Science. 2009;326:681.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Floyd JS, Mutter JC, Goodliffe AM, Taylor B. Evidence for fault weakness and fluid flow within an active low-angle normal fault. Nature. 2001;411:779–83.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Diamond D. Trading as a Business. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2015.
An edited book
1. Georgakopoulos D, Ritter N, Benatallah B, Zirpins C, Feuerlicht G, Schoenherr M, et al., editors. Service-Oriented Computing ICSOC 2006: 4th International Conference, Chicago, IL, USA, December 4-7, 2006, Workshops Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Kitamura C. Synthesis, Crystal Structures, and Solid-State Optical Properties of Substituted Tetracenes. In: Akasaka T, Osuka A, Fukuzumi S, Kandori H, Aso Y, editors. Chemical Science of π-Electron Systems. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2015. p. 69–87.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cardiology and Therapy.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Stressed Out: The Psychological Effects Of Tests On Primary School Children [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Internet of Things: Communities Deploy Projects by Combining Federal Support with Other Funds and Expertise. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2017 Jul. Report No.: GAO-17-570.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Grace-McCaskey CA. Fishermen, Politics, and Participation: An Ethnographic Examination of Commercial Fisheries Management in St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tampa, FL]: University of South Florida; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kelly C. When Hill Country Feels Too Much Like Shreveport. New York Times. 2013 Aug 25;A23B.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCardiology and Therapy
AbbreviationCardiol. Ther.
ISSN (print)2193-8261
ISSN (online)2193-6544
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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