How to format your references using the New Horizons in Clinical Case Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for New Horizons in Clinical Case Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. Toomre, Solar physics. Order amidst turbulence, Science. 296 (2002) 64–65.
A journal article with 2 authors
M.J. Crawley, J.E. Harral, Scale dependence in plant biodiversity, Science. 291 (2001) 864–868.
A journal article with 3 authors
J.W. Schnupp, T.D. Mrsic-Flogel, A.J. King, Linear processing of spatial cues in primary auditory cortex, Nature. 414 (2001) 200–204.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
W. Xia, O. Smith, N. Zmora, S. Xu, Y. Zohar, Comprehensive analysis of GnRH2 neuronal projections in zebrafish, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 3676.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
H. Pasternak, H.-U. Hoch, D. Füg, Stahltragwerke im Industriebau, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany, 2010.
An edited book
M. Brooks, Developing B2B Social Communities: KEYS TO GROWTH, INNOVATION, AND CUSTOMER LOYALTY, Apress, Berkeley, CA, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
N. Hishida, R. Shaw, Social Capital in Disaster Recovery in Japan: An Overview, in: R. Shaw (Ed.), Community Practices for Disaster Risk Reduction in Japan, Springer Japan, Tokyo, 2014: pp. 51–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for New Horizons in Clinical Case Reports.

Blog post
J. Fang, Were Dinosaurs Warm Or Cold Blooded?, IFLScience. (2014).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, High-Speed Ground Transportation: Issues Affecting Development in the United States, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S.R. Poudel, Models and Algorithms to Solve a Reliable and Congested Biomass Supply Chain Network Designing Problem under Uncertainty, Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Koblin, Amazon Executive Resigns After Harassment Claim, New York Times. (2017) B6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNew Horizons in Clinical Case Reports
AbbreviationNew Horiz. Clin. Case Rep.
ISSN (print)2352-9482

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