How to format your references using the Flora citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Flora. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Levin, G.V., 2001. O2- ions and the Mars labeled release response. Science 291, 2041.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pereira, G., Schiebel, E., 2003. Separase regulates INCENP-Aurora B anaphase spindle function through Cdc14. Science 302, 2120–2124.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tsakmakidis, K.L., Boardman, A.D., Hess, O., 2007. “Trapped rainbow” storage of light in metamaterials. Nature 450, 397–401.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Schwarzenbach, R.P., Escher, B.I., Fenner, K., Hofstetter, T.B., Johnson, C.A., von Gunten, U., Wehrli, B., 2006. The challenge of micropollutants in aquatic systems. Science 313, 1072–1077.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gray, K.A., Paschkewitz, J.J., 2016. Next Generation HALT and HASS. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Beydeda, S., Gruhn, V. (Eds.), 2005. Testing Commercial-off-the-Shelf Components and Systems. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Nava, S., Fanfulla, F., 2010. Le interfacce per NIV, in: Fanfulla, F. (Ed.), Ventilazione Meccanica Non Invasiva: Come, Quando e Perché. Springer, Milano, pp. 15–19.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Flora.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Scientists Discover How Plant Sunscreen Works [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1973. Request for Reformation of Contract (No. B-178078). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Duncan, E.A., 2017. Environmental controls of black abalone body temperature determine risks of thermal stress and disease (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Van Gelder, S.K.C. by L., 2005. Arts, Briefly; A New Yorker Clone Folds. New York Times E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Levin, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Levin, 2001; Pereira and Schiebel, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pereira and Schiebel, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Schwarzenbach et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleFlora
ISSN (print)0367-2530
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Plant Science

Other styles