How to format your references using the Flora citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Flora. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Barabási, A.-L., 2009. Scale-free networks: a decade and beyond. Science 325, 412–413.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fenistein, D., Van Hecke, M., 2003. Kinematics: wide shear zones in granular bulk flow. Nature 425, 256.
A journal article with 3 authors
Marshall, C.H., Pielke, R.A., Sr, Steyaert, L.T., 2003. Wetlands: crop freezes and land-use change in Florida. Nature 426, 29–30.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zang, H., Yan, L., Li, M., He, L., Gai, Z., Ivanov, I., Wang, M., Chiang, L., Urbas, A., Hu, B., 2013. Magneto-dielectric effects induced by optically-generated intermolecular charge-transfer states in organic semiconducting materials. Sci. Rep. 3, 2812.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bonnet, P., 2013. Enterprise Data Governance. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Savacı, F.A. (Ed.), 2006. Artificial Intelligence and Neural Networks: 14th Turkish Symposium, TAINN 2005, Izmir, Turkey, June 16-17, 2005, Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Kawsar, F., Vermeulen, J., Smith, K., Luyten, K., Kortuem, G., 2011. Exploring the Design Space for Situated Glyphs to Support Dynamic Work Environments, in: Lyons, K., Hightower, J., Huang, E.M. (Eds.), Pervasive Computing: 9th International Conference, Pervasive 2011, San Francisco, USA, June 12-15, 2011. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 70–78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Flora.

Blog post
Andrews, R., 2015. The Cacao Tree Is A Lot Older Than We Thought [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1987. Radio Frequencies: Earlier Coordination Could Improve System Use and Save Costs (No. NSIAD-87-42). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Griess, J.O., 2010. A canine audience: The effect of Animal-Assisted Therapy on reading progress among students identified with learning disabilities (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Roach, M., 2011. In Space, Nice Guys Finish First. New York Times WK12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Barabási, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Barabási, 2009; Fenistein and Van Hecke, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fenistein and Van Hecke, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Zang et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleFlora
ISSN (print)0367-2530
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Plant Science

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