How to format your references using the Flora citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Flora. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Laursen, L., 2015. Botany: The cultivation of weed. Nature 525, S4-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dubrulle, J., Pourquié, O., 2004. fgf8 mRNA decay establishes a gradient that couples axial elongation to patterning in the vertebrate embryo. Nature 427, 419–422.
A journal article with 3 authors
Reiner, S.L., Sallusto, F., Lanzavecchia, A., 2007. Division of labor with a workforce of one: challenges in specifying effector and memory T cell fate. Science 317, 622–625.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wiltshire, M.C., Pendry, J.B., Young, I.R., Larkman, D.J., Gilderdale, D.J., Hajnal, J.V., 2001. Microstructured magnetic materials for RF flux guides in magnetic resonance imaging. Science 291, 849–851.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Abid, M.M., 2006. Spacecraft Sensors. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Núñez, M., Güdemann, M. (Eds.), 2015. Formal Methods for Industrial Critical Systems: 20th International Workshop, FMICS 2015 Oslo, Norway, June 22-23, 2015 Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Cocchiarella, N.B., 2010. Actualism Versus Possibilism in Formal Ontology, in: Poli, R., Seibt, J. (Eds.), Theory and Applications of Ontology: Philosophical Perspectives. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 105–117.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Flora.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Six Italian Scientists Acquitted of Manslaughter From 2009 Earthquake [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2001. Restructuring of the District of Columbia Department of Public Works’ Division of Transportation (No. GAO-01-347R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Clark, J., 2015. Screening for Allelopathic Potential and Self Facilitation in Japanese Hops (Humulus japonicus, Cannabaceae) (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Qiu, L., 2017. Lessons and Interpretations on the Court Nomination Process. New York Times A13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Laursen, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Dubrulle and Pourquié, 2004; Laursen, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dubrulle and Pourquié, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Wiltshire et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleFlora
ISSN (print)0367-2530
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Plant Science

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