How to format your references using the Flora citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Flora. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zeki, S., 2000. Abstraction and idealism. Nature 404, 547.
A journal article with 2 authors
Serebrov, V., Pyle, A.M., 2004. Periodic cycles of RNA unwinding and pausing by hepatitis C virus NS3 helicase. Nature 430, 476–480.
A journal article with 3 authors
Robertson, J.L., Kolmakova-Partensky, L., Miller, C., 2010. Design, function and structure of a monomeric ClC transporter. Nature 468, 844–847.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
van de Wal, R.S.W., Boot, W., van den Broeke, M.R., Smeets, C.J.P.P., Reijmer, C.H., Donker, J.J.A., Oerlemans, J., 2008. Large and rapid melt-induced velocity changes in the ablation zone of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Science 321, 111–113.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Young, M.R., 2013. Financial Fraud Prevention and Detection. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Wallace, M., Angelides, M.C., Mylonas, P. (Eds.), 2008. Advances in Semantic Media Adaptation and Personalization, Studies in Computational Intelligence. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Hunt, K.S., Ray, J.A., Jeter, J.M., 2014. Hereditary Risk for Cancer, in: Alberts, D., Hess, L.M. (Eds.), Fundamentals of Cancer Prevention. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 123–150.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Flora.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2016. China Unveils The Fastest Supercomputer In The World [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1997. Education and Employment Issue Area: Active Assignments (No. AA-97-13(2)). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Albers, C., 2015. One Academic Year Study of Experiences of One Cohort of Graduates from a Midwestern University’s Teacher Education Program (Doctoral dissertation). Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B., 2017. After 15 Years, New York Is Back as Grammy Host. New York Times B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Zeki, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Serebrov and Pyle, 2004; Zeki, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Serebrov and Pyle, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (van de Wal et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleFlora
ISSN (print)0367-2530
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Plant Science

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