How to format your references using the Flora citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Flora. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Toms, D.J., 2010. Quantum gravitational contributions to quantum electrodynamics. Nature 468, 56–59.
A journal article with 2 authors
Szathmáry, E., Hammerstein, P., 2004. Obituary: John Maynard Smith (1920-2004). Nature 429, 258–259.
A journal article with 3 authors
Worthylake, D.K., Rossman, K.L., Sondek, J., 2000. Crystal structure of Rac1 in complex with the guanine nucleotide exchange region of Tiam1. Nature 408, 682–688.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chang, H.-K., King, S.-K., Liang, J.-S., Wu, P.-S., Lin, L.C.-C., Chiu, J.-L., 2006. Occultation of X-rays from Scorpius X-1 by small trans-neptunian objects. Nature 442, 660–663.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hillis, D.R., Duvall, J.B., 2012. Improving Profitability through Green Manufacturing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Babiloni, F., 2005. Neuroeconomia, Neuromarketing e Processi Decisionali: Le evidenze di un test di memorizzazione condotto per la prima volta in Italia. Princeton Archit. Press, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Cremona, J.E., Aranés, M.T., 2014. Congruence Subgroups, Cusps and Manin Symbols over Number Fields, in: Böckle, G., Wiese, G. (Eds.), Computations with Modular Forms: Proceedings of a Summer School and Conference, Heidelberg, August/September 2011, Contributions in Mathematical and Computational Sciences. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 109–127.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Flora.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Stem Cell Discovery Could Lead To Treatments For Various Blood And Immune Disorders [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2004. Transportation-Disadvantaged Seniors: Efforts to Enhance Senior Mobility Could Benefit from Additional Guidance and Information (No. GAO-04-971). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Green, S.W., 2015. The influence of satisfaction among African American males on community college choices (Doctoral dissertation). Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Davey, M., Walsh, M.W., 2014. Detroit Outlines Map to Solvency, Stressing Repair. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Toms, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Szathmáry and Hammerstein, 2004; Toms, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Szathmáry and Hammerstein, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Chang et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleFlora
ISSN (print)0367-2530
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Plant Science

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