How to format your references using the New Forests citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for New Forests. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Savage N (2013) Physiology: Beating stroke. Nature 493:S12-3
A journal article with 2 authors
Jucker M, Walker LC (2013) Self-propagation of pathogenic protein aggregates in neurodegenerative diseases. Nature 501:45–51
A journal article with 3 authors
Martill DM, Tischlinger H, Longrich NR (2015) EVOLUTION. A four-legged snake from the Early Cretaceous of Gondwana. Science 349:416–419
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Miller KM, Li S, Kaukinen KH, et al (2011) Genomic signatures predict migration and spawning failure in wild Canadian salmon. Science 331:214–217

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Clark G (2014) The Making of a World City. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
A KMA, Clark OH (eds) (2012) Handbook of Parathyroid Diseases: A Case-Based Practical Guide. Springer US, Boston, MA
A chapter in an edited book
Bhattacharya A, Yang Z, Pan D (2009) COCONET: Co-operative Cache Driven Overlay NETwork for p2p Vod Streaming. In: Bartolini N, Nikoletseas S, Sinha P, et al. (eds) Quality of Service in Heterogeneous Networks: 6th International ICST Conference on Heterogeneous Networking for Quality, Reliability, Security and Robustness, QShine 2009 and 3rd International Workshop on Advanced Architectures and Algorithms for Internet Delivery and Applications, AAA-IDEA 2009, Las Palmas, Gran Canaria, November 23-25, 2009 Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 52–68

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for New Forests.

Blog post
Hamilton K (2015) This Is What Andromeda Would Look Like At Night If It Were Brighter. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1997) Transportation Issue Area: Active Assignments. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lin Y-S (2009) Virtuoso piano transcriptions of Stephen Hough and Marc-André Hamelin: Lisztian tradition in the twenty-first century. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Markoff J, Rosenberg M (2017) China’s Intelligent Weaponry Gets Smarter. New York Times BU1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Savage 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Savage 2013; Jucker and Walker 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jucker and Walker 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Miller et al. 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleNew Forests
AbbreviationNew Forests
ISSN (print)0169-4286
ISSN (online)1573-5095

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