How to format your references using the New Forests citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for New Forests. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wand AJ (2015) Biophysics: Enzymes surf the heat wave. Nature 517:149–150
A journal article with 2 authors
Reches Z, Lockner DA (2010) Fault weakening and earthquake instability by powder lubrication. Nature 467:452–455
A journal article with 3 authors
Kirk PDW, Babtie AC, Stumpf MPH (2015) SYSTEMS BIOLOGY. Systems biology (un)certainties. Science 350:386–388
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Leunissen ME, Christova CG, Hynninen A-P, et al (2005) Ionic colloidal crystals of oppositely charged particles. Nature 437:235–240

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bertein J-C, Ceschi R (2013) Discrete Stochastic Processes and Optimal Filtering. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Simpson TW, Siddique Z, Jiao JR (eds) (2006) Product Platform and Product Family Design: Methods and Applications. Springer US, Boston, MA
A chapter in an edited book
Wang P, He Y, Huang L (2010) Approaching the Optimal Schedule for Data Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Networks. In: Pandurangan G, Anil Kumar VS, Ming G, et al. (eds) Wireless Algorithms, Systems, and Applications: 5th International Conference, WASA 2010, Beijing, China, August 15-17, 2010. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 26–35

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for New Forests.

Blog post
Hamilton K (2017) How Breast Milk Could Help Prevent The Antibiotic Apocalypse. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1978) Reuse of Municipal Wastewater and Development of New Technology: Emphasis and Direction Needed. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Grayson N (2014) Development of a preliminary scale of counterproductive experiences in supervision: Attitudes of clinical psychology doctoral students. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Alderman L (2017) Europe Surveys the Gig Economy And Wants Worker Safeguards. New York Times B1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wand 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Reches and Lockner 2010; Wand 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Reches and Lockner 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Leunissen et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleNew Forests
AbbreviationNew Forests
ISSN (print)0169-4286
ISSN (online)1573-5095

Other styles