How to format your references using the New Forests citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for New Forests. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Koen D (2005) Nuts and bolts. Online applications. Nature 433:90
A journal article with 2 authors
Bruno RM, Sakmann B (2006) Cortex is driven by weak but synchronously active thalamocortical synapses. Science 312:1622–1627
A journal article with 3 authors
Coumou D, Driesner T, Heinrich CA (2008) The structure and dynamics of mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems. Science 321:1825–1828
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Knoch D, Pascual-Leone A, Meyer K, et al (2006) Diminishing reciprocal fairness by disrupting the right prefrontal cortex. Science 314:829–832

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jaitly R (2016) Practical Operational Due Diligence on Hedge Funds. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Padula F (2015) Advances in Robust Fractional Control. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Caleiro C, Mateus P, Sernadas A, Sernadas C (2006) Quantum Institutions. In: Futatsugi K, Jouannaud J-P, Meseguer J (eds) Algebra, Meaning, and Computation: Essays dedicated to Joseph A. Goguen on the Occasion of His 65th Birthday. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 50–64

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for New Forests.

Blog post
Davis J (2015) Mysterious “X-Files” Sounds Heard 36km Above Earth’s Surface. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1988) Railroad Safety: Accidents in Pennsylvania and Related Federal Enforcement Actions. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gallegos CM (2009) Shelter services for homeless older adults: A grant writing project. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K (2002) Fire Chief Questions Closing of Streets. New York Times 145

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Koen 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Koen 2005; Bruno and Sakmann 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bruno and Sakmann 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Knoch et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleNew Forests
AbbreviationNew Forests
ISSN (print)0169-4286
ISSN (online)1573-5095

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