How to format your references using the New Forests citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for New Forests. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hapgood M (2012) Astrophysics: Prepare for the coming space weather storm. Nature 484:311–313
A journal article with 2 authors
Wilhite AW, Fong EA (2012) Scientific publications. Coercive citation in academic publishing. Science 335:542–543
A journal article with 3 authors
Abu-Raddad LJ, Patnaik P, Kublin JG (2006) Dual infection with HIV and malaria fuels the spread of both diseases in sub-Saharan Africa. Science 314:1603–1606
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Sarkar I, Hauber I, Hauber J, Buchholz F (2007) HIV-1 proviral DNA excision using an evolved recombinase. Science 316:1912–1915

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shover L (2010) Trading Options in Turbulent Markets. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Glau K, Grbac Z, Scherer M, Zagst R (eds) (2016) Innovations in Derivatives Markets: Fixed Income Modeling, Valuation Adjustments, Risk Management, and Regulation. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Piattoni S (2016) Exploring European Union Macro-regional Strategies through the Lens of Multilevel Governance. In: Gänzle S, Kern K (eds) A ‘Macro-regional’ Europe in the Making: Theoretical Approaches and Empirical Evidence. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London, pp 75–97

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for New Forests.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Scientists Find Direct Evidence That Atmospheric CO2 Heats Earth’s Crust. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2006) Postsecondary Education: Multiple Tax Preferences and Title IV Student Aid Programs Create a Complex Education Financing Environment. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Campos-Doerfler L (2017) The Role of Sgs1 and Exo1 in the Maintenance of Genome Stability. Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B (2016) Time Takes the Sharp Edges Off a Femme Fatale in a David Hare Revival. New York Times C6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hapgood 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Wilhite and Fong 2012; Hapgood 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wilhite and Fong 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Sarkar et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleNew Forests
AbbreviationNew Forests
ISSN (print)0169-4286
ISSN (online)1573-5095

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