How to format your references using the New Forests citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for New Forests. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Liman ER (2012) Cell signaling. Putting the squeeze on phototransduction. Science 338:200–201
A journal article with 2 authors
Byrne CJ, Eldrup M (2008) Materials science. Bulk metallic glasses. Science 321:502–503
A journal article with 3 authors
Childers SE, Ciufo S, Lovley DR (2002) Geobacter metallireducens accesses insoluble Fe(III) oxide by chemotaxis. Nature 416:767–769
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Remskar M, Mrzel A, Skraba Z, et al (2001) Self-assembly of subnanometer-diameter single-wall MoS2 nanotubes. Science 292:479–481

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ramsinghani M (2014) The Business of Venture Capital. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Fulekar MH, Pathak B, Kale RK (eds) (2014) Environment and Sustainable Development. Springer India, New Delhi
A chapter in an edited book
Affronti A, Orlando A, Cottone M (2016) Course of Crohn’s Disease. In: Lo Re G, Midiri M (eds) Crohn’s Disease: Radiological Features and Clinical-Surgical Correlations. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 31–42

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for New Forests.

Blog post
Andrews R (2016) Titanosaur Footprint In Gobi Desert Is One Of The Largest Ever Found. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1982) Evaluation of NASA Compliance With Congressional Reprogramming Requirements. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ichiyama J (2014) Early goal-directed therapy in adult septic patients. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW (2016) A Harbinger of U.S. Woes. New York Times B1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Liman 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Byrne and Eldrup 2008; Liman 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Byrne and Eldrup 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Remskar et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleNew Forests
AbbreviationNew Forests
ISSN (print)0169-4286
ISSN (online)1573-5095

Other styles