How to format your references using the New Forests citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for New Forests. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
MacLeod K (2000) The Oort crowd. Nature 406:129
A journal article with 2 authors
Eddy CR Jr, Gaskill DK (2009) Materials science. Silicon carbide as a platform for power electronics. Science 324:1398–1400
A journal article with 3 authors
Gandía-Herrero F, García-Carmona F, Escribano J (2005) Botany: floral fluorescence effect. Nature 437:334
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Zheng Y, Danilenko DM, Valdez P, et al (2007) Interleukin-22, a T(H)17 cytokine, mediates IL-23-induced dermal inflammation and acanthosis. Nature 445:648–651

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Allin P, Hand DJ (2014) The Wellbeing of Nations. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Zopounidis C, Doumpos M, Pardalos PM (eds) (2008) Handbook of Financial Engineering. Springer US, Boston, MA
A chapter in an edited book
Dai Y, Steinberger J (2016) Indifferentiability of 8-Round Feistel Networks. In: Robshaw M, Katz J (eds) Advances in Cryptology – CRYPTO 2016: 36th Annual International Cryptology Conference, Santa Barbara, CA, USA, August 14-18, 2016, Proceedings, Part I. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 95–120

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for New Forests.

Blog post
Fang J (2014) Mice with Malaria are More Attractive to Mosquitoes. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1999) Federal Highway Administration: Parts and Accessories Necessary for Safe Operations, Lighting Devices, Reflectors, and Electrical Equipment. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kharal SP (2017) Modelling Sensitization Dynamics in 5xxx Series Aluminum Alloys. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg B (2017) Crowd Lifts Frenchwoman. Now, Who Will Hoist a First Major Trophy? New York Times D4

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (MacLeod 2000).
This sentence cites two references (MacLeod 2000; Eddy and Gaskill 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Eddy and Gaskill 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Zheng et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleNew Forests
AbbreviationNew Forests
ISSN (print)0169-4286
ISSN (online)1573-5095

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