How to format your references using the The Journal of Finance and Data Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Finance and Data Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Matsuda R. Materials chemistry: Selectivity from flexibility. Nature. 2014;509(7501):434-435.
A journal article with 2 authors
Uchida M, Tonomura A. Generation of electron beams carrying orbital angular momentum. Nature. 2010;464(7289):737-739.
A journal article with 3 authors
Xu X, Su Y, Fan ZH. Cotinine concentration in serum correlates with tobacco smoke-induced emphysema in mice. Sci Rep. 2014;4:3864.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
da Silveira Petruci JF, Fortes PR, Kokoric V, et al. Real-time monitoring of ozone in air using substrate-integrated hollow waveguide mid-infrared sensors. Sci Rep. 2013;3:3174.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Vegh A. Web Development with the Mac®. Wiley Publishing, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Fister I, Fister I Jr, eds. Adaptation and Hybridization in Computational Intelligence. Vol 18. Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Denhart M, Villwock R, Vedder R. The Academics–Athletics Trade-Off: Universities and Intercollegiate Athletics. In: Hall JC, ed. Doing More with Less: Making Colleges Work Better. Springer; 2010:95-136.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Finance and Data Science.

Blog post
Andrew E. How A Wobbly Axis Helped Our Planet Escape ‘Snowball Earth.’ IFLScience. Published August 27, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. DCPS: Limitation of Attorneys’ Fees for Fiscal Years 1999 through 2001. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Payan Venegas R. Factors associated with the lack of a regular health care provider for Latinos: Consequences and reasons. Published online 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lichtblau E. N.R.A.’s Wins in Congress Grow With Lobbyist’s Role. New York Times. January 29, 2016:A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Finance and Data Science
ISSN (print)2405-9188

Other styles