How to format your references using the The Journal of Finance and Data Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Finance and Data Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wickelgren I. Neuroscience. Monkey see, monkey think about doing. Science. 2004;305(5681):162-163.
A journal article with 2 authors
Meskhidze N, Nenes A. Phytoplankton and cloudiness in the Southern Ocean. Science. 2006;314(5804):1419-1423.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lin Z, Owen AB, Altman RB. Genetics. Genomic research and human subject privacy. Science. 2004;305(5681):183.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Pennekamp F, Pontarp M, Tabi A, et al. Biodiversity increases and decreases ecosystem stability. Nature. 2018;563(7729):109-112.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Spector P. Understanding Clinical Cardiac Electrophysiology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2016.
An edited book
Takeda K, Hansen JHL, Erdoğan H, Abut H, eds. In-Vehicle Corpus and Signal Processing for Driver Behavior. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Alekseev VR. Reactivation of Diapausing Crustaceans. In: Alekseev VR, Stasio BT de, Gilbert JJ, eds. Diapause in Aquatic Invertebrates Theory and Human Use. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2007:65-82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Finance and Data Science.

Blog post
Fang J. Test: How Old Are Your Ears? IFLScience. Published August 26, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Comments on Proposed F.P.M.R. Amendment. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1980.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wenger MC. Free-choice family learning experiences at informal astronomy observing events. 2011.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard B. TV Drama Takes Arabs Inside Life Under ISIS. New York Times. May 16, 2017:A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Finance and Data Science
ISSN (print)2405-9188

Other styles