How to format your references using the The Journal of Finance and Data Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Finance and Data Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jungkind D. Tech.Sight. Molecular testing for infectious disease. Science. 2001;294(5546):1553-1555.
A journal article with 2 authors
Doyle J, Csete M. Rules of engagement. Nature. 2007;446(7138):860.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hagan CL, Kim S, Kahne D. Reconstitution of outer membrane protein assembly from purified components. Science. 2010;328(5980):890-892.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Yizhar O, Fenno LE, Prigge M, et al. Neocortical excitation/inhibition balance in information processing and social dysfunction. Nature. 2011;477(7363):171-178.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Aquino JA. The International Family Guide to US University Admissions. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2017.
An edited book
Marchand S, Saravane D, Gaumond I, eds. Mental Health and Pain: Somatic and Psychiatric Components of Pain in Mental Health. Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Bartoli CG, Senn ME, Gergoff Grozeff GE. Physiological Processes Contributing to the Synthesis of Ascorbic Acid in Plants. In: Gupta DK, Palma JM, Corpas FJ, eds. Redox State as a Central Regulator of Plant-Cell Stress Responses. Springer International Publishing; 2016:71-92.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Finance and Data Science.

Blog post
Hale T. Grainy Footage Fuels Rumor That Extinct Tasmanian Tiger Lives On. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Business Systems Modernization: Internal Revenue Service’s Fiscal Year 2005 Expenditure Plan. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Anderson D. Chamber Music in Early Piano Study: A Guide to Repertoire. Doctoral dissertation. University of Cincinnati; 2004.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kolomatsky M. Top Degrees for Homeownership. New York Times. June 2, 2017:RE2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Finance and Data Science
ISSN (print)2405-9188

Other styles