How to format your references using the Neurosurgical Focus citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neurosurgical Focus. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cripton PA: Perspective: Protecting the neck. Nature 503:S13, 2013
A journal article with 2 authors
Bilder D, Perrimon N: Localization of apical epithelial determinants by the basolateral PDZ protein Scribble. Nature 403:676–680, 2000
A journal article with 3 authors
van den Ent F, Amos LA, Löwe J: Prokaryotic origin of the actin cytoskeleton. Nature 413:39–44, 2001
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Alvarez JI, Dodelet-Devillers A, Kebir H, Ifergan I, Fabre PJ, Terouz S, et al: The Hedgehog pathway promotes blood-brain barrier integrity and CNS immune quiescence. Science 334:1727–1731, 2011

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Popkin JD: A Concise History of the Haitian Revolution. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 2011
An edited book
Rajasekaran S (ed): Bioinformatics and Computational Biology: First International Conference, BICoB 2009, New Orleans, LA, USA, April 8-10, 2009. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2009
A chapter in an edited book
Li X-G, Niculescu S-I, Çela A: Invariance Property: A Unique Idea for Complete Stability Analysis, in Niculescu S-I , Cela A (eds): Analytic Curve Frequency-Sweeping Stability Tests for Systems with Commensurate Delays, SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015, pp 47–52

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neurosurgical Focus.

Blog post
Andrew E: CDC Warns Ebola Outbreak Could Top 1 Million By January. IFLScience:2014 Available: Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Review of Energy Research and Development Administration’s Requirements for Safety Analysis Reports. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1976

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Paulone S: Mergers and Acquisitions: Examining Managerial Strategy Connection to Post Transaction Accounting Measures. 2013

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kanter J, Kitsantonis N: European Union Sets $9.5 Billion Agreement On Huge Greek Debt. New York Times:B3, 2017

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 3,4.
This sentence cites four references 4,5,7,8.

About the journal

Full journal titleNeurosurgical Focus
AbbreviationNeurosurg. Focus
ISSN (online)1092-0684
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Clinical Neurology

Other styles