How to format your references using the The Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Barratt, Alexandra. “Perspective: The Risks of Overdiagnosis.” Nature 527, no. 7578 (November 19, 2015): S104.
A journal article with 2 authors
Patrinos, Aristides, and Anjuli Bamzai. “Policy Needs Robust Climate Science.” Nature 438, no. 7066 (November 17, 2005): 285.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhang, Liang, Cheng Lu, and Kiet Tieu. “Atomistic Simulation of Tensile Deformation Behavior of ∑5 Tilt Grain Boundaries in Copper Bicrystal.” Scientific Reports 4 (August 1, 2014): 5919.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Grützner, Frank, Willem Rens, Enkhjargal Tsend-Ayush, Nisrine El-Mogharbel, Patricia C. M. O’Brien, Russell C. Jones, Malcolm A. Ferguson-Smith, and Jennifer A. Marshall Graves. “In the Platypus a Meiotic Chain of Ten Sex Chromosomes Shares Genes with the Bird Z and Mammal X Chromosomes.” Nature 432, no. 7019 (December 16, 2004): 913–17.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jarman, Kristin H. Beyond Basic Statistics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2015.
An edited book
Randall, David, and Pascal Salembier, eds. From CSCW to Web 2.0: European Developments in Collaborative Design: Selected Papers from COOP08. Computer Supported Cooperative Work. London: Springer, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Nasraoui, Olfa, and Esin Saka. “Web Usage Mining in Noisy and Ambiguous Environments: Exploring the Role of Concept Hierarchies, Compression, and Robust User Profiles.” In From Web to Social Web: Discovering and Deploying User and Content Profiles: Workshop on Web Mining, WebMine 2006, Berlin, Germany, September 18, 2006. Revised Selected and Invited Papers, edited by Bettina Berendt, Andreas Hotho, Dunja Mladenic, and Giovanni Semeraro, 82–101. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2007.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies.

Blog post
Andrews, Robin. “Nestlé’s New Sugar Type Means 40% Less Will Be Used In Its Chocolate.” IFLScience. IFLScience, December 2, 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. “International Education Assistance: USAID Has Implemented Primary Grade Reading Programs but Has Not Yet Measured Progress toward Its Strategic Goal.” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, May 7, 2015.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ulaganathan, Manju Narmada. “Building a Volunteered Geographic Information System (VGIS): A Mobile Application for Disaster Management.” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brownmiller, Susan. “Hugh Hefner Was My Enemy.” New York Times, September 29, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies
ISSN (print)1082-9636
ISSN (online)1527-8263
ScopeGeneral Arts and Humanities
Cultural Studies

Other styles