How to format your references using the The Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Burnell, Jocelyn Bell. “Astronomy. Pulsars 40 Years On.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 318, no. 5850 (October 26, 2007): 579–81.
A journal article with 2 authors
Grzybowski, Bartosz A., and George M. Whitesides. “Dynamic Aggregation of Chiral Spinners.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 296, no. 5568 (April 26, 2002): 718–21.
A journal article with 3 authors
Galy, Valier, Bernhard Peucker-Ehrenbrink, and Timothy Eglinton. “Global Carbon Export from the Terrestrial Biosphere Controlled by Erosion.” Nature 521, no. 7551 (May 14, 2015): 204–7.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Lim, Lee P., Nelson C. Lau, Philip Garrett-Engele, Andrew Grimson, Janell M. Schelter, John Castle, David P. Bartel, Peter S. Linsley, and Jason M. Johnson. “Microarray Analysis Shows That Some MicroRNAs Downregulate Large Numbers of Target MRNAs.” Nature 433, no. 7027 (February 17, 2005): 769–73.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zwecher, Michael J. Retirement Portfolios. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2010.
An edited book
Hoffmeister, Dirk, ed. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 3rd ed. 2016. Vol. III. The Mycota, A Comprehensive Treatise on Fungi as Experimental Systems for Basic and Applied Research. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Lin, Pey-Chang Kent, and Sunil P. Khatri. “Predictor Ranking Using Modified Zhegalkin Functions.” In Logic Synthesis for Genetic Diseases: Modeling Disease Behavior Using Boolean Networks, edited by Sunil P. Khatri, 53–74. New York, NY: Springer, 2014.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies.

Blog post
Hamilton, Kristy. “This 2-Year-Old Has A Maniacal Solution To The Trolley Problem.” IFLScience. IFLScience, September 5, 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. “School Lunch Program: Buy American Procedures at Schools With Cash or Credit in Lieu of Food.” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, August 9, 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Evans, Kory M. “Evolution of Craniofacial Diversity in Neotropical Electric Fishes (Gymnotiformes: Teleostei).” Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Arango, Tim. “Food Poisoning Sickens Hundreds of Iraqis at U.N.-Run Camp.” New York Times, June 13, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies
ISSN (print)1082-9636
ISSN (online)1527-8263
ScopeGeneral Arts and Humanities
Cultural Studies

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