How to format your references using the The Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rutishauser, Urs. “Gerald Edelman (1929-2014).” Nature 510, no. 7506 (June 26, 2014): 474.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tao, Tao, and Kunlun Xin. “Public Health: A Sustainable Plan for China’s Drinking Water.” Nature 511, no. 7511 (July 31, 2014): 527–28.
A journal article with 3 authors
Batson, P. E., N. Dellby, and O. L. Krivanek. “Sub-Ångstrom Resolution Using Aberration Corrected Electron Optics.” Nature 418, no. 6898 (August 8, 2002): 617–20.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Cook, Peter J., Bong Gun Ju, Francesca Telese, Xiangting Wang, Christopher K. Glass, and Michael G. Rosenfeld. “Tyrosine Dephosphorylation of H2AX Modulates Apoptosis and Survival Decisions.” Nature 458, no. 7238 (April 2, 2009): 591–96.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Singh, Jasveer. Functional Software Size Measurement Methodology with Effort Estimation and Performance Indication. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2017.
An edited book
Artalejo, Jesús R. Retrial Queueing Systems: A Computational Approach. Edited by Antonio Gómez-Corral. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Härdle, Wolfgang Karl, and Léopold Simar. “Theory of the Multinormal.” In Applied Multivariate Statistical Analysis, edited by Léopold Simar, 183–99. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2015.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies.

Blog post
Andrews, Robin. “Escaped Guatemalan Scorpion Leaps Out Of Bag On British Train.” IFLScience. IFLScience, January 4, 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. “Drug Abuse: Research on Treatment May Not Address Current Needs.” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, September 12, 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schwartz, Kimberly Ann. “Dynamics of Teacher Self-Efficacy: Middle School Reading and Language Arts Teacher Responses on a Teacher Sense of Efficacy Scale.” Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, Mary. “Check In /Check Out; MIAMI BEACH, FLA.: Soho Beach House.” New York Times, November 28, 2010.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies
ISSN (print)1082-9636
ISSN (online)1527-8263
ScopeGeneral Arts and Humanities
Cultural Studies

Other styles