How to format your references using the The Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Church, George. “Let Us Go Forth and Safely Multiply.” Nature 438, no. 7067 (November 24, 2005): 423.
A journal article with 2 authors
Thomassen, Mary Jane, and Mani S. Kavuru. “Lung Disease: Treatment by Cell Transplant.” Nature 514, no. 7523 (October 23, 2014): 438–40.
A journal article with 3 authors
Baldini, James U. L., Frank McDermott, and Ian J. Fairchild. “Structure of the 8200-Year Cold Event Revealed by a Speleothem Trace Element Record.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 296, no. 5576 (June 21, 2002): 2203–6.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Pelletier, Laurence, Eileen O’Toole, Anne Schwager, Anthony A. Hyman, and Thomas Müller-Reichert. “Centriole Assembly in Caenorhabditis Elegans.” Nature 444, no. 7119 (November 30, 2006): 619–23.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Afoakwa, Emmanuel Ohene. Chocolate Science and Technology. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2016.
An edited book
Taber, Keith S., ed. Progressing Science Education: Constructing the Scientific Research Programme into the Contingent Nature of Learning Science. Vol. 37. Science & Technology Education Library. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Kelso, J. A. Scott. “Synergies: Atoms of Brain and Behavior.” In Progress in Motor Control: A Multidisciplinary Perspective, edited by Dagmar Sternad, 83–91. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Boston, MA: Springer US, 2009.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. “Two Crocodiles Fight To The Death.” IFLScience. IFLScience, June 16, 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. “Intelligent Transportation Systems: Urban and Rural Transit Providers Reported Benefits but Face Deployment Challenges.” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, June 21, 2016.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Alonzo, Cynthia E. “Operation Uniting Families: Family Treatment Program a Grant.” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, Mary. “Chinese Cabby’s Query Prompted an Epiphany.” New York Times, March 26, 2015.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies
ISSN (print)1082-9636
ISSN (online)1527-8263
ScopeGeneral Arts and Humanities
Cultural Studies

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