How to format your references using the The Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grünbaum, Daniel. “Ecology. Peter Principle Packs a Peck of Phytoplankton.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 323, no. 5917 (February 20, 2009): 1022–23.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pasteris, Jill Dill, and Brigitte Wopenka. “Laser-Raman Spectroscopy: Images of the Earth’s Earliest Fossils?” Nature 420, no. 6915 (December 5, 2002): 476–77; discussion 477.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li, Ye, Xianren Zhang, and Dapeng Cao. “The Role of Shape Complementarity in the Protein-Protein Interactions.” Scientific Reports 3 (November 20, 2013): 3271.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Zhou, Yiming, Philip Castonguay, Eriene-Heidi Sidhom, Abbe R. Clark, Moran Dvela-Levitt, Sookyung Kim, Jonas Sieber, et al. “A Small-Molecule Inhibitor of TRPC5 Ion Channels Suppresses Progressive Kidney Disease in Animal Models.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 358, no. 6368 (December 8, 2017): 1332–36.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Abran, Alain. Software Project Estimation. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2015.
An edited book
Chadwick, David, and Gansen Zhao, eds. Public Key Infrastructure: Second European PKI Workshop: Research and Applications, EuroPKI 2005, Canterbury, UK, June 30 - July 1, 2005, Revised Selected Papers. Vol. 3545. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Ide, Nancy, James Pustejovsky, Christopher Cieri, Eric Nyberg, Denise DiPersio, Chunqi Shi, Keith Suderman, Marc Verhagen, Di Wang, and Jonathan Wright. “The Language Application Grid.” In Worldwide Language Service Infrastructure: Second International Workshop, WLSI 2015, Kyoto, Japan, January 22-23, 2015. Revised Selected Papers, edited by Yohei Murakami and Donghui Lin, 51–70. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies.

Blog post
Davis, Josh. “New Zealand Parrot Found To Display Contagious ‘Laughter.’” IFLScience. IFLScience, March 20, 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. “Activities of the National Institute of Education, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, July 9, 1974.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Damiano, Elizabeth S. “The Effects of Psychological Stress on Physical Health over Time.” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, Kelly. “Grown in New Jersey (Mostly).” New York Times, July 6, 2008.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies
ISSN (print)1082-9636
ISSN (online)1527-8263
ScopeGeneral Arts and Humanities
Cultural Studies

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