How to format your references using the The Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kulmala, Markku. “Atmospheric Chemistry: China’s Choking Cocktail.” Nature 526, no. 7574 (October 22, 2015): 497–99.
A journal article with 2 authors
Allmann, Bettina P., and Peter M. Shearer. “A High-Frequency Secondary Event during the 2004 Parkfield Earthquake.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 318, no. 5854 (November 23, 2007): 1279–83.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bongard, Josh, Victor Zykov, and Hod Lipson. “Resilient Machines through Continuous Self-Modeling.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 314, no. 5802 (November 17, 2006): 1118–21.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Guo, Yun-Nan, Liviu Ungur, Garrett E. Granroth, Annie K. Powell, Chunji Wu, Stephen E. Nagler, Jinkui Tang, Liviu F. Chibotaru, and Dongmei Cui. “An NCN-Pincer Ligand Dysprosium Single-Ion Magnet Showing Magnetic Relaxation via the Second Excited State.” Scientific Reports 4 (June 27, 2014): 5471.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gramß, Tino, Stefan Bornholdt, Michael Groß, Melanie Mitchell, and Thomas Pellizzari. Non-Standard Computation. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2005.
An edited book
Schmitt, Claus, Isabel Deisenhofer, and Bernhard Zrenner, eds. Catheter Ablation of Cardiac Arrhythmias: A Practical Approach. Darmstadt: Steinkopff, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Scott, Jill, and Esther Stoeckli. “Skin And Environment.” In Neuromedia: Art and Neuroscience Research, edited by Jill Scott and Esther Stoeckli, 117–44. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2012.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. “Ebola Survivors Should Use Condoms Indefinitely.” IFLScience. IFLScience, May 4, 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. “Status of Budget Authority Involved in Three Rescissions.” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, October 13, 1976.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jordan, Edgar A. “The Semiconductor Industry and Emerging Technologies: A Study Using a Modified Delphi Method.” Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), Sophia Kishkovsky. “World Business Briefing | Europe: Russia: Smart Thieves Fail To Outwit Police.” New York Times, November 21, 2002.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies
ISSN (print)1082-9636
ISSN (online)1527-8263
ScopeGeneral Arts and Humanities
Cultural Studies

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