How to format your references using the The Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ehlers, Michael D. “Eppendorf 2003 Prize-Winning Essay. Ubiquitin and the Deconstruction of Synapses.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 302, no. 5646 (October 31, 2003): 800–801.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cannavo, Elda, and Petr Cejka. “Sae2 Promotes DsDNA Endonuclease Activity within Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 to Resect DNA Breaks.” Nature 514, no. 7520 (October 2, 2014): 122–25.
A journal article with 3 authors
O’Brien, S. J., E. Eizirik, and W. J. Murphy. “Genomics. On Choosing Mammalian Genomes for Sequencing.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 292, no. 5525 (June 22, 2001): 2264–66.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Ma, Dong, Chunyang Jiang, Xiaoli Hu, Huibin Liu, Qingzhao Li, Tingting Li, Yanyan Yang, and Ou Li. “Methylation Patterns of the IFN-γ Gene in Cervical Cancer Tissues.” Scientific Reports 4 (September 11, 2014): 6331.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brenner, Ilene R. How to Survive a Medical Malpractice Lawsuit. Chichester, West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2010.
An edited book
Muijs, Daniel. Collaboration and Networking in Education. Edited by Mel Ainscow, Chris Chapman, and Mel West. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Moemeka, Edward, and Elizabeth Moemeka. “Building an Adaptive Experience.” In Real World Windows 10 Development, edited by Elizabeth Moemeka, 179–207. Berkeley, CA: Apress, 2015.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. “Researchers Discover How Mosquitos Locate Hosts’ Skin for Feeding.” IFLScience. IFLScience, December 9, 2013.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. “Information Technology: DHS Needs to Further Define and Implement Its New Governance Process.” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, July 25, 2012.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hall, Kathleen Nevin. “Facilitating Physically Active Identity Development in Older Women.” Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, Linda. “Unexpected State Aid to Ease School Taxes.” New York Times, April 20, 2008.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies
ISSN (print)1082-9636
ISSN (online)1527-8263
ScopeGeneral Arts and Humanities
Cultural Studies

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