How to format your references using the The Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Blow, Nathan. “Functional Neuroscience: Changing the Colour of MRI.” Nature 458, no. 7240 (April 16, 2009): 926.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zwaag, Daan van der, and E. W. Meijer. “SELF-ORGANIZATION. Fueling Connections between Chemistry and Biology.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 349, no. 6252 (September 4, 2015): 1056–57.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mottram, Donald S., Bronislaw L. Wedzicha, and Andrew T. Dodson. “Acrylamide Is Formed in the Maillard Reaction.” Nature 419, no. 6906 (October 3, 2002): 448–49.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Clayden, Jonathan, Andrew Lund, Lluís Vallverdú, and Madeleine Helliwell. “Ultra-Remote Stereocontrol by Conformational Communication of Information along a Carbon Chain.” Nature 431, no. 7011 (October 21, 2004): 966–71.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ibe, Eishi H. Terrestrial Radiation Effects in ULSI Devices and Electronic Systems. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd, 2014.
An edited book
Rebeiro, Chester. Timing Channels in Cryptography: A Micro-Architectural Perspective. Edited by Debdeep Mukhopadhyay and Sarani Bhattacharya. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Chesney, Marc, Jonathan Gheyssens, Anca Claudia Pana, and Luca Taschini. “Economic Growth and the Environment.” In Environmental Finance and Investments, edited by Jonathan Gheyssens, Anca Claudia Pana, and Luca Taschini, 73–101. Springer Texts in Business and Economics. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2016.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies.

Blog post
Davis, Josh. “Some Species May Be Able To Rapidly Adapt To Environmental Change By Altering Gene Expression.” IFLScience. IFLScience, October 26, 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. “Hospital Quality Data: HHS Should Specify Steps and Time Frame for Using Information Technology to Collect and Submit Data.” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, April 25, 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kratchman, Jessica. “Predicting Chronic Non-Cancer Toxicity Levels from Short-Term Toxicity Data.” Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sasse, Ben. “Put Your Kids to Work.” New York Times, July 28, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies
ISSN (print)1082-9636
ISSN (online)1527-8263
ScopeGeneral Arts and Humanities
Cultural Studies

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