How to format your references using the The Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Herculano-Houzel, Suzana. “Neuroscience. Sleep It Out.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 342, no. 6156 (October 18, 2013): 316–17.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wiseman, Bryony S., and Zena Werb. “Stromal Effects on Mammary Gland Development and Breast Cancer.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 296, no. 5570 (May 10, 2002): 1046–49.
A journal article with 3 authors
Erickson, Brent, Rina Singh, and Paul Winters. “Synthetic Biology: Regulating Industry Uses of New Biotechnologies.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 333, no. 6047 (September 2, 2011): 1254–56.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Geuking, Markus B., Jacqueline Weber, Marie Dewannieux, Elieser Gorelik, Thierry Heidmann, Hans Hengartner, Rolf M. Zinkernagel, and Lars Hangartner. “Recombination of Retrotransposon and Exogenous RNA Virus Results in Nonretroviral CDNA Integration.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 323, no. 5912 (January 16, 2009): 393–96.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Meyer, Veronika R. Pitfalls and Errors of HPLC in Pictures. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2013.
An edited book
Penczek, Wojciech. Advances in Verification of Time Petri Nets and Timed Automata: A Temporal Logic Approach. Edited by Agata Pólrola. Vol. 20. Studies in Computational Intelligence. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Jones, Trevor Gareth, Harifidy Rakoto Ratsimba, Aude Carro, Lalao Ravaoarinorotsihoarana, Leah Glass, Marianne Teoh, Lisa Benson, et al. “The Mangroves of Ambanja and Ambaro Bays, Northwest Madagascar: Historical Dynamics, Current Status and Deforestation Mitigation Strategy.” In Estuaries: A Lifeline of Ecosystem Services in the Western Indian Ocean, edited by Salif Diop, Peter Scheren, and John Ferdinand Machiwa, 67–85. Estuaries of the World. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. “Hug Hormone Oxytocin Boosts Bonding By Releasing Cannabis-Like Molecules.” IFLScience. IFLScience, October 28, 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. “Excess and Surplus Personal Property Transfer Program.” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, June 7, 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Domec, Brennan S. “Development, Characterization, and Resultant Properties of a Carbon, Boron, and Chromium Ternary Diffusion System.” Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY, Jesse, and Benjamin Mueller. “2 Escapees Still at Large Despite 450-Officer Hunt in Remote, Swampy Area.” New York Times, June 10, 2015.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies
ISSN (print)1082-9636
ISSN (online)1527-8263
ScopeGeneral Arts and Humanities
Cultural Studies

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