How to format your references using the The Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fusi, Stefano. “Neuroscience. A Quiescent Working Memory.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 319, no. 5869 (March 14, 2008): 1495–96.
A journal article with 2 authors
Seelig, Burckhard, and Jack W. Szostak. “Selection and Evolution of Enzymes from a Partially Randomized Non-Catalytic Scaffold.” Nature 448, no. 7155 (August 16, 2007): 828–31.
A journal article with 3 authors
Meza, Lucas R., Satyajit Das, and Julia R. Greer. “Strong, Lightweight, and Recoverable Three-Dimensional Ceramic Nanolattices.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 345, no. 6202 (September 12, 2014): 1322–26.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Fischer, Tobias P., David R. Hilton, Mindy M. Zimmer, Alison M. Shaw, Zachary D. Sharp, and James A. Walker. “Subduction and Recycling of Nitrogen along the Central American Margin.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 297, no. 5584 (August 16, 2002): 1154–57.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Svensson, Holger. Cable-Stayed Bridges. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2012.
An edited book
Quang, Nguyen Phung. Vector Control of Three-Phase AC Machines: System Development in the Practice. Edited by Jörg-Andreas Dittrich. Power Systems. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Bennett, John E. “Diagnostic Histopathology.” In Diagnosis and Treatment of Fungal Infections, edited by Duane R. Hospenthal and Michael G. Rinaldi, 37–43. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies.

Blog post
Taub, Ben. “Why Do We Have Nightmares?” IFLScience. IFLScience, October 31, 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. “Management of Research and Development in Electronics-Communications Equipment Needs Improvement.” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, February 11, 1971.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Goodison, Sean Edmund. “The Undiscovered Country: Homicide, Dynamic Change, and Deterrence in Washington, D.C. Neighborhoods, 1998-2006.” Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
McKINLEY, James C., Jr., and A. L. Baker. “Quest for New Life Ends in Tangle of Gang Ties.” New York Times, August 25, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies
ISSN (print)1082-9636
ISSN (online)1527-8263
ScopeGeneral Arts and Humanities
Cultural Studies

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