How to format your references using the Neuroscience Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neuroscience Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J.A. Coyne, Comment on “Gene regulatory networks and the evolution of animal body plans,” Science. 313 (2006) 761; author reply 761.
A journal article with 2 authors
S. Ausländer, M. Fussenegger, Synthetic biology: Toehold gene switches make big footprints, Nature. 516 (2014) 333–334.
A journal article with 3 authors
R.S. Sansom, S.E. Gabbott, M.A. Purnell, Non-random decay of chordate characters causes bias in fossil interpretation, Nature. 463 (2010) 797–800.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S. Myong, M.M. Bruno, A.M. Pyle, T. Ha, Spring-loaded mechanism of DNA unwinding by hepatitis C virus NS3 helicase, Science. 317 (2007) 513–516.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
B. McLeish, Successful Marketing Strategies for Nonprofit Organizations, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2010.
An edited book
M.M. Peixoto, A.A. Pinto, D.A. Rand, eds., Dynamics, Games and Science II: DYNA 2008, in Honor of Maurício Peixoto and David Rand, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal, September 8-12, 2008, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
S.-K. Kim, J.-M. Han, M.-Y. Song, A Social Network System Based on an Ontology in the Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, in: J.G. Breslin, T.N. Burg, H.-G. Kim, T. Raftery, J.-H. Schmidt (Eds.), Recent Trends and Developments in Social Software: International Conferences on Social Software, BlogTalk 2008, Cork, Ireland, March 3-4, 2008, and BlogTalk 2009, Jeju Island, South Korea, September 15-16, 2009. Revised Selected Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010: pp. 46–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neuroscience Letters.

Blog post
K. Evans, The Edge Of The Universe Is Closer Than Scientists Previously Thought, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Tax System Modernization: IRS’ Challenge for the 21st Century, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M. Lee, A graphic design curriculum development project, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Risen, Trump Can Target Journalists, Thanks to Obama, New York Times. (2016) SR3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNeuroscience Letters
AbbreviationNeurosci. Lett.
ISSN (print)0304-3940
ScopeGeneral Neuroscience

Other styles