How to format your references using the International Journal of Surgery Protocols citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Surgery Protocols. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
E. Pain, Science careers. Playing well with industry, Science. 319 (2008) 1548–1551.
A journal article with 2 authors
T. Chouard, L. Venema, Machine intelligence, Nature. 521 (2015) 435.
A journal article with 3 authors
S.W. Behie, P.M. Zelisko, M.J. Bidochka, Endophytic insect-parasitic fungi translocate nitrogen directly from insects to plants, Science. 336 (2012) 1576–1577.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
E. Calo, B. Gu, M.E. Bowen, F. Aryan, A. Zalc, J. Liang, R.A. Flynn, T. Swigut, H.Y. Chang, L.D. Attardi, J. Wysocka, Tissue-selective effects of nucleolar stress and rDNA damage in developmental disorders, Nature. 554 (2018) 112–117.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A. D’Andrea, J. Sjogren, Veterinary Technician’s Large Animal Daily Reference Guide, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2013.
An edited book
D.S. Kerzner, International Tax Evasion in the Global Information Age, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
J.M. Lemos, I. Sampaio, Distributed LQG Control for Multiobjective Control of Water Canals, in: C. Ocampo-Martinez, R.R. Negenborn (Eds.), Transport of Water versus Transport over Water: Exploring the Dynamic Interplay of Transport and Water, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015: pp. 59–73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Surgery Protocols.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Ten Deadly Carcinogens (You’ve Probably Never Heard Of), IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Information Technology: OMB and Agencies Need to Focus Continued Attention on Implementing Reform Law, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2016.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J.C. Collette, Validation of the tgFgfr1-EGFP Mouse Line as a Tool to Study Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1 Cellular Localization and Expression After Experimental Manipulations, Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. Kelly, Miss. Loves Nev, New York Times. (1998) 732.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Surgery Protocols
AbbreviationInt. J. Surg. Protoc.
ISSN (print)2468-3574

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