How to format your references using the International Journal of Surgery Protocols citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Surgery Protocols. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
P. Moore, Playing with the pieces, Nature. 426 (2003) 725.
A journal article with 2 authors
A. Nechiporuk, D.W. Raible, FGF-dependent mechanosensory organ patterning in zebrafish, Science. 320 (2008) 1774–1777.
A journal article with 3 authors
D. Brockmann, L. Hufnagel, T. Geisel, The scaling laws of human travel, Nature. 439 (2006) 462–465.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
R.A. Brooker, Z. Du, J.D. Blundy, S.P. Kelley, N.L. Allan, B.J. Wood, E.M. Chamorro, J.-A. Wartho, J.A. Purton, The “zero charge” partitioning behaviour of noble gases during mantle melting, Nature. 423 (2003) 738–741.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
E. Heitz, G. Kreysa, Grundlagen der Technischen Elektrochemie, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG, 2005.
An edited book
E. Villar, ed., Embedded Systems Specification and Design Languages: Selected contributions from FDL’07, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
F. Huang, J. Titus, A. Wolinski, K. Schneider, J.A. Carter, XML-Based Tools for Creating, Mapping, and Transforming Usability Engineering Requirements, in: A. Seffah, J. Vanderdonckt, M.C. Desmarais (Eds.), Human-Centered Software Engineering: Software Engineering Models, Patterns and Architectures for HCI, Springer, London, 2009: pp. 83–104.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Surgery Protocols.

Blog post
E. Andrew, MAVEN Spacecraft Takes First Deep Dip, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Student Loans: Characteristics of Defaulted Borrowers in the Stafford Student Loan Program, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C. Lindemann-Litzsinger, Investigating the Possible Relationship Between Participation in High School Athletics and First-Generation College Student Persistence to College Graduation, Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Schwartz, Pardon My Sweat, Pass the Borscht, New York Times. (2017) D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Surgery Protocols
AbbreviationInt. J. Surg. Protoc.
ISSN (print)2468-3574

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