How to format your references using the International Journal of Surgery Protocols citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Surgery Protocols. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
R. Pielke Jr, Gather data to reveal true extent of doping in sport, Nature. 517 (2015) 529.
A journal article with 2 authors
G.D. Fairn, S. Grinstein, Cell biology. Precursor or charge supplier?, Science. 337 (2012) 653–654.
A journal article with 3 authors
H. Jia, J.R. Liggins, W.S. Chow, Entropy and biological systems: experimentally-investigated entropy-driven stacking of plant photosynthetic membranes, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4142.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Y. Yang, J.D. Sugimoto, M.E. Halloran, N.E. Basta, D.L. Chao, L. Matrajt, G. Potter, E. Kenah, I.M. Longini Jr, The transmissibility and control of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus, Science. 326 (2009) 729–733.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
B. Benmammar, A. Amraoui, Radio Resource Allocation and Dynamic Spectrum Access, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ USA, 2013.
An edited book
J.D. Gatrell, Research Design and Proposal Writing in Spatial Science: Second Edition, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
P. Grefen, N. Mehandjiev, Organization Aspect, in: N. Mehandjiev, P. Grefen (Eds.), Dynamic Business Process Formation for Instant Virtual Enterprises, Springer, London, 2010: pp. 39–47.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Surgery Protocols.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Scientists Discover A New Human Virus, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Charter Schools: To Enhance Education’s Monitoring and Research, More Charter School-Level Data Are Needed, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
V. Ghadimian, Renewable Energy Marketplace, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M.J.O. Murphy, Friday File, New York Times. (2014) C33.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Surgery Protocols
AbbreviationInt. J. Surg. Protoc.
ISSN (print)2468-3574

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