How to format your references using the Neuropathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neuropathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hofmann DC. Materials science. Shape memory bulk metallic glass composites. Science. 2010 Sep 10;329(5997):1294–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Thurner S, Poledna S. DebtRank-transparency: controlling systemic risk in financial networks. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1888.
A journal article with 3 authors
Andrew TL, Tsai H-Y, Menon R. Confining light to deep subwavelength dimensions to enable optical nanopatterning. Science. 2009 May 15;324(5929):917–21.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wu Z-H, Shi Y, Tibbetts RS, Miyamoto S. Molecular linkage between the kinase ATM and NF-kappaB signaling in response to genotoxic stimuli. Science. 2006 Feb 24;311(5764):1141–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bartoszyǹski R, Niewiadomska-Bugaj M. Probability and Statistical Inference, Second Edition. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2007.
An edited book
Zhou Z-R. Dental Biotribology. Yu H-Y, Zheng J, Qian L-M, Yan Y, editors. New York, NY: Springer; 2013. XIII, 177 p.
A chapter in an edited book
Kirk W, Shahzad N. Hyperconvex Metric Spaces. In: Shahzad N, editor. Fixed Point Theory in Distance Spaces. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 23–4.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neuropathology.

Blog post
Fang J. What Are These Bizarre Formations At Meteorite Fall Sites? [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Motor Carrier Safety: The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Has Developed a Reasonable Framework for Managing and Testing Its Comprehensive Safety Analysis 2010 Initiative. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2007 Dec. Report No.: GAO-08-242R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pak CH. A study of high-performing at-risk high school students and their perceptions on academic success and achievement [Doctoral dissertation]. [Malibu, CA]: Pepperdine University; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. A Ceremonial Start to the Session as the Supreme Court Welcomes a New Chief Justice. New York Times. 2005 Oct 4;A25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleNeuropathology
ISSN (print)0919-6544
ISSN (online)1440-1789
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Clinical Neurology
Pathology and Forensic Medicine

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