How to format your references using the Neuropathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neuropathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Clapham DE. TRP channels as cellular sensors. Nature. 2003 Dec 4;426(6966):517–24.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chen ZH, Schaap P. The prokaryote messenger c-di-GMP triggers stalk cell differentiation in Dictyostelium. Nature. 2012 Aug 30;488(7413):680–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Moore SW, Biais N, Sheetz MP. Traction on immobilized netrin-1 is sufficient to reorient axons. Science. 2009 Jul 10;325(5937):166.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Okamoto YK, Kataza H, Honda M, Yamashita T, Onaka T, Watanabe JI, et al. An early extrasolar planetary system revealed by planetesimal belts in beta Pictoris. Nature. 2004 Oct 7;431(7009):660–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
van Gumster J, Shimonski R. GIMP Bible. Indianapolis, IN, USA: Wiley Publishing, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Mielke A, editor. Analysis, Modeling and Simulation of Multiscale Problems. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006. XVIII, 697 p. 199 illus., 32 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
Calafiore GC, Carlone L, Dellaert F. Lagrangian Duality in Complex Pose Graph Optimization. In: Goldengorin B, editor. Optimization and Its Applications in Control and Data Sciences: In Honor of Boris T Polyak’s 80th Birthday. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 139–84. (Springer Optimization and Its Applications).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neuropathology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Dolphins Form Complex Social Networks. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Energy R&D: DOE’s Allocation of Funds for Basic and Applied Research and Development. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990 May. Report No.: RCED-90-148BR.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rakusin LL. Intervening to reduce adolescent substance abuse: A grant proposal [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hager EB, Mazzetti M. Emirates Secretly Sends Colombian Mercenaries to Yemen Fight. New York Times. 2015 Nov 26;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleNeuropathology
ISSN (print)0919-6544
ISSN (online)1440-1789
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Clinical Neurology
Pathology and Forensic Medicine

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