How to format your references using the Neuropathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neuropathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goldberg DE. Parasitology. When the host is smarter than the parasite. Science. 2002 Apr 19;296(5567):482–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bramble DM, Lieberman DE. Endurance running and the evolution of Homo. Nature. 2004 Nov 18;432(7015):345–52.
A journal article with 3 authors
Plaks V, Koopman CD, Werb Z. Cancer. Circulating tumor cells. Science. 2013 Sep 13;341(6151):1186–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wu WQ, Rao HS, Xu YF, Wang YF, Su CY, Kuang DB. Hierarchical oriented anatase TiO2 nanostructure arrays on flexible substrate for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1892.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gardner S, Birley S. Blogging for Dummies®. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Publishing, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Cortajarena AL, Grove TZ, editors. Protein-based Engineered Nanostructures. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. VI, 286 p. 132 illus., 107 illus. in color. (Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology; vol. 940).
A chapter in an edited book
Humphrey LR. Model Checking for Verification in UAV Cooperative Control Applications. In: Fahroo F, Wang LY, Yin G, editors. Recent Advances in Research on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. p. 69–117. (Lecture Notes in Control and Information Sciences).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neuropathology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Chemical Messengers: How Hormones Make Us Feel Hungry And Full [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Rail Abandonments: Abandonment Activity and Shipper Views on Rail Service Loss. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987 Jul. Report No.: RCED-87-82.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Johnson C. Directed blogging with community college ESL students: Its effects on awareness of language acquisition processes [Doctoral dissertation]. [Malibu, CA]: Pepperdine University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. Street-Cleaning Rules Are Whisked Away, And Drivers Get a Little Patch of Heaven. New York Times. 2002 Feb 24;144.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleNeuropathology
ISSN (print)0919-6544
ISSN (online)1440-1789
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Clinical Neurology
Pathology and Forensic Medicine

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