How to format your references using the Green Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Green Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Xu, Pingxi. 2005. “Eppendorf 2005 Winner. A Drosophila OBP Required for Pheromone Signaling.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 310 (5749): 798–799.
A journal article with 2 authors
Skovran, Elizabeth, and Norma Cecilia Martinez-Gomez. 2015. “Microbiology. Just Add Lanthanides.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 348 (6237): 862–863.
A journal article with 3 authors
Long, John A., Kate Trinajstic, and Zerina Johanson. 2009. “Devonian Arthrodire Embryos and the Origin of Internal Fertilization in Vertebrates.” Nature 457 (7233): 1124–1127.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Gu, Zhaolin, Wei Wei, Junwei Su, and Chuck Wah Yu. 2013. “The Role of Water Content in Triboelectric Charging of Wind-Blown Sand.” Scientific Reports 3: 1337.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gaisford, Simon, and Mark Saunders. 2012. Essentials of Pharmaceutical Preformulation. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Liang, Qilian, Wei Wang, Jiasong Mu, Jing Liang, Baoju Zhang, Yiming Pi, and Chenglin Zhao, eds. 2012. Communications, Signal Processing, and Systems: The 2012 Proceedings of the International Conference on Communications, Signal Processing, and Systems. Vol. 202. Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Baxley, Traci P., and Genyne Henry Boston. 2014. “Journey to the Center.” In (In)Visible Presence: Feminist Counter-Narratives of Young Adult Literature by Women of Color, edited by Genyne Henry Boston, 65–81. Transgressions. Rotterdam: SensePublishers.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Green Letters.

Blog post
Hale, Tom. 2016. “Man Drinks Five Energy Drinks A Day And Develops Hepatitis.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1991. Meeting the Aviation Challenges of the 1990s: Experts Define Key Problems and Identify Emerging Issues. RCED-91-152. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ibarra, Alberto Luis. 2017. “Novice Clinicians and the Experience of Transcendence in Clinical Training and Supervision.” Doctoral dissertation, Malibu, CA: Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, Mary. 2012. “Family of Seau Decides To Give Brain for Study.” New York Times, May 5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Xu 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Xu 2005; Skovran and Martinez-Gomez 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Skovran and Martinez-Gomez 2015)
  • Three authors: (Long, Trinajstic, and Johanson 2009)
  • 4 or more authors: (Gu et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleGreen Letters
ISSN (print)1468-8417
ISSN (online)2168-1414
ScopeLiterature and Literary Theory

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