How to format your references using the Green Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Green Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bynum, W. F. 2001. “Nature’s Helping Hand.” Nature 414 (6859): 21.
A journal article with 2 authors
Scholes, R. J., and R. Biggs. 2005. “A Biodiversity Intactness Index.” Nature 434 (7029): 45–49.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nawae, Wanapinun, Supa Hannongbua, and Marasri Ruengjitchatchawalya. 2014. “Defining the Membrane Disruption Mechanism of Kalata B1 via Coarse-Grained Molecular Dynamics Simulations.” Scientific Reports 4 (February): 3933.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Brand, Antje, Oliver Behrend, Torsten Marquardt, David McAlpine, and Benedikt Grothe. 2002. “Precise Inhibition Is Essential for Microsecond Interaural Time Difference Coding.” Nature 417 (6888): 543–547.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Early, William F., II. 2010. Contractor and Client Relations to Assure Process Safety. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Heppenstall, Alison J., Andrew T. Crooks, Linda M. See, and Michael Batty, eds. 2012. Agent-Based Models of Geographical Systems. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Ehrenfeucht, Andrzej, and Grzegorz Rozenberg. 2011. “A Formal Framework for Bioprocesses in Living Cells.” In Unconventional Computation: 10th International Conference, UC 2011, Turku, Finland, June 6-10, 2011. Proceedings, edited by Cristian S. Calude, Jarkko Kari, Ion Petre, and Grzegorz Rozenberg, 10–10. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Green Letters.

Blog post
Hale, Tom. 2016. “According To Science, Are Male Or Female Orgasms Better?” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1980. Increased Use of Expanded Function Dental Auxiliaries Would Benefit Consumers, Dentists, and Taxpayers. HRD-80-51. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Neil, Scott. 2012. “A Turn from the Worst: Leadership Influences on the Successful Turnaround of a High-Poverty School.” Doctoral dissertation, Minneapolis, MN: Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Baker, Peter. 2017. “Forces He Could Not Control.” New York Times, September 6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bynum 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Bynum 2001; Scholes and Biggs 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Scholes and Biggs 2005)
  • Three authors: (Nawae, Hannongbua, and Ruengjitchatchawalya 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Brand et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleGreen Letters
ISSN (print)1468-8417
ISSN (online)2168-1414
ScopeLiterature and Literary Theory

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