How to format your references using the Green Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Green Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Botvinick, Matthew. 2004. “Neuroscience. Probing the Neural Basis of Body Ownership.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 305 (5685): 782–783.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hartley, R. R., and R. P. Behringer. 2003. “Logarithmic Rate Dependence of Force Networks in Sheared Granular Materials.” Nature 421 (6926): 928–931.
A journal article with 3 authors
Song, Kahye, Eunseop Yeom, and Sang Joon Lee. 2014. “Real-Time Imaging of Pulvinus Bending in Mimosa Pudica.” Scientific Reports 4 (September): 6466.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Kraus, H., V. A. Soltamov, F. Fuchs, D. Simin, A. Sperlich, P. G. Baranov, G. V. Astakhov, and V. Dyakonov. 2014. “Magnetic Field and Temperature Sensing with Atomic-Scale Spin Defects in Silicon Carbide.” Scientific Reports 4 (July): 5303.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Maguire, Laurie, and Emma Smith. 2012. 30 Great Myths about Shakespeare. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
An edited book
Gehrlein, William V. 2011. Voting Paradoxes and Group Coherence: The Condorcet Efficiency of Voting Rules. Edited by Dominique Lepelley. Studies in Choice and Welfare. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Krishnan, S. P. T., and Jose L. Ugia Gonzalez. 2015. “Google App Engine.” In Building Your Next Big Thing with Google Cloud Platform: A Guide for Developers and Enterprise Architects, edited by Jose L. Ugia Gonzalez, 83–122. Berkeley, CA: Apress.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Green Letters.

Blog post
Andrews, Robin. 2016. “Did North Korea Detonate A Secret Nuclear Weapon Back In 2010?” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2016. Polar Weather Satellites: NOAA Is Working to Ensure Continuity but Needs to Quickly Address Information Security Weaknesses and Future Program Uncertainties. GAO-16-359. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Davidson, Adina O. 2009. “Observing Action Research Processes in Practice.” Doctoral dissertation, Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, Mary Williams. 2016. “Richard K. Ransom, 96, Founder of Hickory Farms.” New York Times, April 17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Botvinick 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Botvinick 2004; Hartley and Behringer 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hartley and Behringer 2003)
  • Three authors: (Song, Yeom, and Lee 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Kraus et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleGreen Letters
ISSN (print)1468-8417
ISSN (online)2168-1414
ScopeLiterature and Literary Theory

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