How to format your references using the Energies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Energies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Knott, G. Neurodegeneration: Cold shock protects the brain. Nature 2015, 518, 177–178.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sheth, U.; Parker, R. Decapping and decay of messenger RNA occur in cytoplasmic processing bodies. Science 2003, 300, 805–808.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bix, M.; Kim, S.; Rao, A. Immunology. Opposites attract in differentiating T cells. Science 2005, 308, 1563–1565.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Choi, D.H.; Wang, Q.; Azuma, Y.; Majima, Y.; Warner, J.H.; Miyata, Y.; Shinohara, H.; Kitaura, R. Fabrication and characterization of fully flattened carbon nanotubes: a new graphene nanoribbon analogue. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 1617.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gunn, D.M. Judges; Blackwell Publishing: Malden, MA, USA, 2016; ISBN 9781118710746.
An edited book
Case-Based Inpatient Pediatric Dermatology; Hogeling, M., Ed.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; ISBN 9783319315676.
A chapter in an edited book
Bodnar, O.; Schmid, W. CUSUM Control Schemes for Multivariate Time Series. In Frontiers in Statistical Quality Control 8; Lenz, H.-J., Wilrich, P.-T., Eds.; Physica-Verlag HD: Heidelberg, 2006; pp. 55–73 ISBN 9783790816860.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Energies.

Blog post
Fang, J. Bizarre Alien Planet Acts Like A Comet (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Telecommunications: FCC’s Handling of Formal Complaints Filed Against Common Carriers; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1993;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Amanoua, K.P. Langue et identité dans les milieux populaires québécois et antillais. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana: Lafayette, LA, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hanc, J. Skills-Gap Fixes. New York Times 2017, F4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEnergies
ISSN (online)1996-1073
ScopeGeneral Computer Science

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