How to format your references using the Energies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Energies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Abbott, A. Italians Riled by Science Reforms. Nature 2003, 421, 465.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wolff, S.; Dillin, A. Cell Biology: The Stressful Influence of Microbes. Nature 2014, 508, 328–329.
A journal article with 3 authors
Branco, T.; Clark, B.A.; Häusser, M. Dendritic Discrimination of Temporal Input Sequences in Cortical Neurons. Science 2010, 329, 1671–1675.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hellal, F.; Hurtado, A.; Ruschel, J.; Flynn, K.C.; Laskowski, C.J.; Umlauf, M.; Kapitein, L.C.; Strikis, D.; Lemmon, V.; Bixby, J.; et al. Microtubule Stabilization Reduces Scarring and Causes Axon Regeneration after Spinal Cord Injury. Science 2011, 331, 928–931.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Keedwell, E.; Narayanan, A. Intelligent Bioinformatics; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2005; ISBN 9780470015728.
An edited book
Balkan and Eastern European Countries in the Midst of the Global Economic Crisis; Karasavvoglou, A., Polychronidou, P., Eds.; Contributions to Economics; Physica-Verlag HD: Heidelberg, 2013; ISBN 9783790828726.
A chapter in an edited book
Dörfler, P.; Sick, M.; Coutu, A. High-Frequency Vortex Phenomena. In Flow-Induced Pulsation and Vibration in Hydroelectric Machinery: Engineer’s Guidebook for Planning, Design and Troubleshooting; Sick, M., Coutu, A., Eds.; Springer: London, 2013; pp. 111–127 ISBN 9781447142515.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Energies.

Blog post
Davis, J. The Parasite That Causes Chagas Disease Is Much More Widespread In The USA Than Previously Thought Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Federal Research: Information on Fees for Selected Federally Funded Research and Development Centers; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1995;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Raines, J.R. Exploring Differences in Teacher Attitudes and Instructional Strategies between Traditional and Block Schedule High Schools: A Comparison of Two Large Schools. Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University: St. Charles, MO, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stellin, S. For Carry-On Bags, Size Is Just the Beginning. New York Times 2013, TR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEnergies
ISSN (online)1996-1073
ScopeGeneral Computer Science

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