How to format your references using the Energies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Energies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Passey, B.H. Geochemistry. Biogeochemical Tales Told by Isotope Clumps. Science 2015, 348, 394–395.
A journal article with 2 authors
White, A.E.; Harper, J.W. Cancer. Emerging Anatomy of the BAP1 Tumor Suppressor System. Science 2012, 337, 1463–1464.
A journal article with 3 authors
Halevy, I.; Zuber, M.T.; Schrag, D.P. A Sulfur Dioxide Climate Feedback on Early Mars. Science 2007, 318, 1903–1907.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kirk, J.; Ruiz, J.; Chesley, J.; Walshe, J.; England, G. A Major Archean, Gold- and Crust-Forming Event in the Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa. Science 2002, 297, 1856–1858.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bajpai, P. Environmentally Friendly Production of Pulp and Paper; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2010; ISBN 9780470649657.
An edited book
Israel and the Palestinian Refugees; Benvenisti, E., Gans, C., Hanafi, S., Eds.; Beiträge zum ausländischen öffentlichen Recht und Völkerrecht; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007; Vol. 189; ISBN 9783540681601.
A chapter in an edited book
McGonagle, J.J.; Vella, C.M. Figuring Out What You Really Need to Know. In Proactive Intelligence: The Successful Executive’s Guide to Intelligence; Vella, C.M., Ed.; Springer: London, 2012; pp. 41–52 ISBN 9781447127413.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Energies.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. “Air Conditioning System” May Make Hot Planets Habitable Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Microwave Landing Systems: Additional Systems Should Not Be Procured Unless Benefits Proven; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1988;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schiffbauer, L.W. The Pursuit of Self-Esteem: A Help or a Hindrance in Thriving in the Workplace? Doctoral dissertation, Capella University: Minneapolis, MN, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K. A Little Taste Of France. New York Times 2008, NJ9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEnergies
ISSN (online)1996-1073
ScopeGeneral Computer Science

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