How to format your references using the Energies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Energies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tauxe, W. Genome editing: 4 big questions. Nature 2015, 528, S17.
A journal article with 2 authors
Marone, C.; Richardson, E. Geophysics. Do earthquakes rupture piece by piece or all together? Science 2006, 313, 1748–1749.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yamashita, F.; Fukuyama, E.; Omura, K. Estimation of fault strength: reconstruction of stress before the 1995 Kobe earthquake. Science 2004, 306, 261–263.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chen, J.; Yagi, H.; Furutani, Y.; Nakamura, T.; Inaguma, A.; Guo, H.; Kong, Y.; Goto, Y. Self-assembly of the chaperonin GroEL nanocage induced at submicellar detergent. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 5614.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cherniakov, M. An Introduction to Parametric Digital Filters and Oscillators; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2003; ISBN 9780470868256.
An edited book
Gogolin, A.O. Lectures on Complex Integration; Tsitsishvili, E.G., Komnik, A., Eds.; Undergraduate Lecture Notes in Physics; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2014; ISBN 9783319002118.
A chapter in an edited book
Wagner, H.; Bauer, R.; Melchart, D.; Xiao, P.-G.; Staudinger, A. Radix et Rhizoma Asari — Xixin. In Chromatographic Fingerprint Analysis of Herbal Medicines: Thin-layer and High Performance Liquid Chromatography of Chinese Drugs; Wagner, H., Bauer, R., Melchart, D., Xiao, P.-G., Staudinger, A., Eds.; Springer: Vienna, 2011; pp. 45–57 ISBN 9783709107621.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Energies.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Streetlamps Go Green (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Content Analysis: A Methodology for Structuring and Analyzing Written Material; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1996;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lovejoy, L.P. On the control of selective attention in the primate superior colliculus. Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego: La Jolla, CA, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard, B. Saudi Says Arrests Target Dissidents Aided Abroad. New York Times 2017, A7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEnergies
ISSN (online)1996-1073
ScopeGeneral Computer Science

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