How to format your references using the Energies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Energies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. Tale of Two Surveys. Nature 2005, 434, 539.
A journal article with 2 authors
Anderson, D.L.; Natland, J.H. Evidence for Mantle Plumes? Nature 2007, 450, E15; discussion E16.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen, Y.-Z.; Huang, Z.-G.; Lai, Y.-C. Controlling Extreme Events on Complex Networks. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 6121.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Martin, A.; Troadec, C.; Boualem, A.; Rajab, M.; Fernandez, R.; Morin, H.; Pitrat, M.; Dogimont, C.; Bendahmane, A. A Transposon-Induced Epigenetic Change Leads to Sex Determination in Melon. Nature 2009, 461, 1135–1138.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Verdu, J. Oxidative Ageing of Polymers; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2012; ISBN 9781118562598.
An edited book
Facing China as a New Global Superpower: Domestic and International Dynamics from a Multidisciplinary Angle; Cao, H., Paltiel, J., Eds.; Springer: Singapore, 2016; ISBN 9789812878229.
A chapter in an edited book
Li, Z.; Li, X. Quantification of Spike-LFP Synchronization. In Signal Processing in Neuroscience; Li, X., Ed.; Springer: Singapore, 2016; pp. 57–75 ISBN 9789811018213.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Energies.

Blog post
Luntz, S. Pores On The “Platypus Of Microbiology” May Reveal How Complex Life Evolved Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Freight Railroads: Updated Information on Rates and Other Industry Trends; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2007;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
PerLee-Lange, D.L. An Introduction to the Juvenile Dependency Court Process and the Child Welfare System: A Curriculum for Parents. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Belson, K.; Pilon, M. Felix’s 200-Meter Win May Help Settle the 100. New York Times 2012, SP7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEnergies
ISSN (online)1996-1073
ScopeGeneral Computer Science

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