How to format your references using the Poetics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Poetics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Finkbeiner, A. (2011). JASON past, present, and future: the world’s most independent defence science advisers. Nature, 477(7365), 397–399.
A journal article with 2 authors
Amack, J. D., & Manning, M. L. (2012). Knowing the boundaries: extending the differential adhesion hypothesis in embryonic cell sorting. Science (New York, N.Y.), 338(6104), 212–215.
A journal article with 3 authors
Berson, D. M., Dunn, F. A., & Takao, M. (2002). Phototransduction by retinal ganglion cells that set the circadian clock. Science (New York, N.Y.), 295(5557), 1070–1073.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Gauvin, L., Panisson, A., Cattuto, C., & Barrat, A. (2013). Activity clocks: spreading dynamics on temporal networks of human contact. Scientific Reports, 3, 3099.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wilmshurst, L. (2012). Clinical and Educational Child Psychology. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Faure, C., Di Lorenzo, C., & Thapar, N. (Eds.). (2013). Pediatric Neurogastroenterology: Gastrointestinal Motility and Functional Disorders in Children. Humana Press.
A chapter in an edited book
Angelini, P., Da Lozzo, G., Di Battista, G., & Frati, F. (2013). Strip Planarity Testing. In S. Wismath & A. Wolff (Eds.), Graph Drawing: 21st International Symposium, GD 2013, Bordeaux, France, September 23-25, 2013, Revised Selected Papers (pp. 37–48). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Poetics.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2017, March 8). Brain Scans Reveal Why It Is So Difficult To Recover From Ocd – And Hint At Ways Forward. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2006). Air Traffic Control: Status of the Current Modernization Program and Planning for the Next Generation System (GAO-06-738T). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mocilnikar, G. E. (2011). Playing with movies: An examination of the interactions between music and film in “Fantasie for horn and film” [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S. (2005, February 5). Russian Legislators Vote to Condemn Anti-Semitism. New York Times, A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Finkbeiner, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Amack & Manning, 2012; Finkbeiner, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Amack & Manning, 2012)
  • Three authors: (Berson et al., 2002)
  • 6 or more authors: (Gauvin et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titlePoetics
AbbreviationPoetics (Amst.)
ISSN (print)0304-422X
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Literature and Literary Theory
Linguistics and Language

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