How to format your references using the Poetics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Poetics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nelson, W. J. (2003). Adaptation of core mechanisms to generate cell polarity. Nature, 422(6933), 766–774.
A journal article with 2 authors
Perlman, P. S., & Boeke, J. D. (2004). Molecular biology. Ring around the retroelement. Science (New York, N.Y.), 303(5655), 182–184.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kennedy, H. J., Crawford, A. C., & Fettiplace, R. (2005). Force generation by mammalian hair bundles supports a role in cochlear amplification. Nature, 433(7028), 880–883.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Revyakin, A., Liu, C., Ebright, R. H., & Strick, T. R. (2006). Abortive initiation and productive initiation by RNA polymerase involve DNA scrunching. Science (New York, N.Y.), 314(5802), 1139–1143.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Raheja, D. G., & Allocco, M. (2006). Assurance Technologies Principles and Practices. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Muijs, D. (2011). Collaboration and Networking in Education (M. Ainscow, C. Chapman, & M. West, Eds.). Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Ma, D., & Bondade, R. (2013). Power Loss in Switched-Capacitor Power Converters: Causes and Analysis. In R. Bondade (Ed.), Reconfigurable Switched-Capacitor Power Converters: Principles and Designs for Self-Powered Microsystems (pp. 59–69). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Poetics.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, July 19). A 2000-Year-Old Dog Burial Site Has Been Found Near The Arctic Circle. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2009). Teacher Quality: Survey Results of State Officials on Efforts to Coordinate Teacher Quality Initiatives (GAO-09-594SP, July 2009), an E-supplement to GAO-09-593 (GAO-09-594SP). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Edson, C. (2017). A Mixed-Methods Investigation on Contributing Factors to the Political Efficacy of Eighth Grade Students in a Suburban School District in Missouri [Doctoral dissertation]. Lindenwood University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines, G. G. (2012, March 15). Exhibition Recalls Slam-Bang World Of Pulp Magazines. New York Times, F38.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nelson, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Nelson, 2003; Perlman & Boeke, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Perlman & Boeke, 2004)
  • Three authors: (Kennedy et al., 2005)
  • 6 or more authors: (Revyakin et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titlePoetics
AbbreviationPoetics (Amst.)
ISSN (print)0304-422X
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Literature and Literary Theory
Linguistics and Language

Other styles