How to format your references using the Neurology, Psychiatry and Brain Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neurology, Psychiatry and Brain Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brody, H. (2011). Influenza. Nature, 480(7376), S1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Linkenhoker, B. A., & Knudsen, E. I. (2002). Incremental training increases the plasticity of the auditory space map in adult barn owls. Nature, 419(6904), 293–296.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lu, N., Ji, A., & Cao, Z. (2013). Nearly constant electrical resistance over large temperature range in Cu3NMx (M = Cu, Ag, Au) compounds. Scientific Reports, 3, 3090.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Li, F., Li, W., Farzan, M., & Harrison, S. C. (2005). Structure of SARS coronavirus spike receptor-binding domain complexed with receptor. Science (New York, N.Y.), 309(5742), 1864–1868.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
First, M. B., & Tasman, A. (2006). Clinical Guide to the Diagnosis and Treatment of Mental Disorders. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Landriani, L. (2014). Management and Valuation of Heritage Assets: A Comparative Analysis Between Italy and USA (M. Pozzoli, Ed.). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Omar, H. A., & Zhuang, W. (2014). VeMAC Performance Evaluation for VANET Safety Applications. In W. Zhuang (Ed.), Time Division Multiple Access For Vehicular Communications (pp. 39–58). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neurology, Psychiatry and Brain Research.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015, June 2). Bonobo Study Reveals Our Ancestors Likely Had Less Body Fat and More Muscle Mass. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2012). Transportation Security Administration: Progress and Challenges Faced in Strengthening Three Key Security Programs (GAO-12-541T). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Klein, J. (2017). Mississippian Space and Place: A Geographical Study of Archaeological Site Data in the American Bottom [Doctoral dissertation]. Southern Illinois University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S. (2013, July 28). Putin in Ukraine to Celebrate a Christian Anniversary. New York Times, A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brody, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Brody, 2011; Linkenhoker & Knudsen, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Linkenhoker & Knudsen, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Lu et al., 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (Li et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleNeurology, Psychiatry and Brain Research
AbbreviationNeurol. Psychiatry Brain Res.
ISSN (print)0941-9500
ScopeClinical Neurology
Psychiatry and Mental health
General Neuroscience

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