How to format your references using the Neurology, Psychiatry and Brain Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neurology, Psychiatry and Brain Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Heavens, N. G. (2011). Planetary science. Sunshine on a cloudy forecast. Science (New York, N.Y.), 333(6051), 1832–1833.
A journal article with 2 authors
McGhee, K., & Phillips, N. (2015). Nature Index 2015 China. Nature, 528(7582), S165.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pfeffer, W. T., Harper, J. T., & O’Neel, S. (2008). Kinematic constraints on glacier contributions to 21st-century sea-level rise. Science (New York, N.Y.), 321(5894), 1340–1343.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Borra, E. F., Seddiki, O., Angel, R., Eisenstein, D., Hickson, P., Seddon, K. R., & Worden, S. P. (2007). Deposition of metal films on an ionic liquid as a basis for a lunar telescope. Nature, 447(7147), 979–981.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wilson, R. C. (2010). The Hedge Fund Book. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Lajtha, A., Oja, S. S., Schousboe, A., & Saransaari, P. (Eds.). (2007). Handbook of Neurochemistry and Molecular Neurobiology: Amino Acids and Peptides in the Nervous System. Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Bhowmik, M. K., & Kennedy, K. J. (2016). Dropout Ethnic Minority Young People. In K. J. Kennedy (Ed.), ‘Out of School’ Ethnic Minority Young People in Hong Kong (pp. 115–151). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neurology, Psychiatry and Brain Research.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, March 11). New Laser Surgery Can Turn Your Eyes From Brown To Blue For $5000. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1987). FAA Staffing: FAA’s Definition of Its Controller Work Force Should Be Revised (RCED-88-14). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zhang, H. (2008). Studies of Zeolite-Based Artificial Photosynthetic Systems [Doctoral dissertation]. Ohio State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M. (2012, January 4). Sculptured By Weights And a Strict Vegan Diet. New York Times, B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Heavens, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Heavens, 2011; McGhee & Phillips, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (McGhee & Phillips, 2015)
  • Three authors: (Pfeffer et al., 2008)
  • 6 or more authors: (Borra et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleNeurology, Psychiatry and Brain Research
AbbreviationNeurol. Psychiatry Brain Res.
ISSN (print)0941-9500
ScopeClinical Neurology
Psychiatry and Mental health
General Neuroscience

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