How to format your references using the Neurology, Psychiatry and Brain Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neurology, Psychiatry and Brain Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sachs, J. D. (2002). A new global effort to control malaria. Science (New York, N.Y.), 298(5591), 122–124.
A journal article with 2 authors
Legler, B., & Moore, G. (2000). East German academics faced unfair hurdles. Nature, 403(6766), 130.
A journal article with 3 authors
Xu, B., Wang, Q., & Tian, Y. (2013). Bulk modulus for polar covalent crystals. Scientific Reports, 3, 3068.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Weaver, H. A., Stern, S. A., Mutchler, M. J., Steffl, A. J., Buie, M. W., Merline, W. J., Spencer, J. R., Young, E. F., & Young, L. A. (2006). Discovery of two new satellites of Pluto. Nature, 439(7079), 943–945.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yamaguchi, R., & Fujita, K.-I. (2014). Ligand Platforms in Homogenous Catalytic Reactions with Metals. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Wittrock, U. (Ed.). (2005). Adaptive Optics for Industry and Medicine: Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop Münster, Germany, Oct. 19–24, 2003 (Vol. 102). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Mihara, H., Hayashi, Y., & Yamamoto, M. (2013). Performance Evaluation of Fairness between High-Speed TCPs in Wireless Environment. In V. Guyot (Ed.), Advanced Infocomm Technology: 5th IEEE International Conference, ICAIT 2012, Paris, France, July 25-27, 2012. Revised Papers (pp. 5–15). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neurology, Psychiatry and Brain Research.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016, September 8). Researchers Have Found The Bacteria Responsible For The Great Plague Of London. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1985). Error in the Pell Grant Program (127278). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Garatli, A. A. (2014). What are the necessary skills for leading an online business in Saudi Arabia? [Doctoral dissertation]. Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J. (2016, December 5). ‘Westworld’ Creators Speak of Seasons, Spoilers and Patience. New York Times, C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sachs, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Legler & Moore, 2000; Sachs, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Legler & Moore, 2000)
  • Three authors: (Xu et al., 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (Weaver et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleNeurology, Psychiatry and Brain Research
AbbreviationNeurol. Psychiatry Brain Res.
ISSN (print)0941-9500
ScopeClinical Neurology
Psychiatry and Mental health
General Neuroscience

Other styles