How to format your references using the Neurology, Psychiatry and Brain Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neurology, Psychiatry and Brain Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Benton, M. J. (2014). Evolution. How birds became birds. Science (New York, N.Y.), 345(6196), 508–509.
A journal article with 2 authors
Norris, D. P., & Grimes, D. T. (2012). Developmental biology. Cilia discern left from right. Science (New York, N.Y.), 338(6104), 206–207.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chakraborty, S., Yanchulova, P., & Thiemens, M. H. (2013). Mass-independent oxygen isotopic partitioning during gas-phase SiO2 formation. Science (New York, N.Y.), 342(6157), 463–466.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Zhang, J., Green, H. W., Bozhilov, K., & Jin, Z. (2004). Faulting induced by precipitation of water at grain boundaries in hot subducting oceanic crust. Nature, 428(6983), 633–636.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fleckenstein, P., Tranum-Jensen, J., & Myschetzky, P. S. (2014). Anatomy in Diagnostic Imaging. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Ranci, C., & Pavolini, E. (Eds.). (2013). Reforms in Long-Term Care Policies in Europe: Investigating Institutional Change and Social Impacts. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Müller, H. (2009). 2030: Alps Tourism in the Face of Climate Change. In R. Conrady & M. Buck (Eds.), Trends and Issues in Global Tourism 2009 (pp. 57–63). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neurology, Psychiatry and Brain Research.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, November 12). Marriage of Ancient and Modern Makes Rosetta Mission a True Space Odyssey. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1981). The Bureau of the Census Must Solve ADP Acquisition and Security Problems (AFMD-82-13). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Grugan, P. K. (2016). The mindfulness practice of clinicians: A systematic review [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L. (2007, July 15). Bill Penalizes Adults in Under-Age Drinking. New York Times, LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Benton, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Benton, 2014; Norris & Grimes, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Norris & Grimes, 2012)
  • Three authors: (Chakraborty et al., 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (Zhang et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleNeurology, Psychiatry and Brain Research
AbbreviationNeurol. Psychiatry Brain Res.
ISSN (print)0941-9500
ScopeClinical Neurology
Psychiatry and Mental health
General Neuroscience

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