How to format your references using the Biosensors citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biosensors. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gavrilets, S. Rapid Evolution of Reproductive Barriers Driven by Sexual Conflict. Nature 2000, 403, 886–889.
A journal article with 2 authors
Miroshnichenko, A.E.; Kivshar, Y.S. Applied Physics. Polarization Traffic Control for Surface Plasmons. Science 2013, 340, 283–284.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kernbauer, E.; Ding, Y.; Cadwell, K. An Enteric Virus Can Replace the Beneficial Function of Commensal Bacteria. Nature 2014, 516, 94–98.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Tang, H.X.; Masmanidis, S.; Kawakami, R.K.; Awschalom, D.D.; Roukes, M.L. Negative Intrinsic Resistivity of an Individual Domain Wall in Epitaxial (Ga,Mn)As Microdevices. Nature 2004, 431, 52–56.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Liu, S.; Liu, Y. Modeling and Simulation for Microelectronic Packaging Assembly; John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd: Singapore, 2011; ISBN 9780470827826.
An edited book
ECOOP 2009 – Object-Oriented Programming: 23rd European Conference, Genoa, Italy, July 6-10, 2009. Proceedings; Drossopoulou, S., Ed.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009; Vol. 5653; ISBN 9783642030123.
A chapter in an edited book
Robeva, R.; Kumanov, P. Physical Changes During Pubertal Transition. In Puberty: Physiology and Abnormalities; Kumanov, P., Agarwal, A., Eds.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; pp. 39–64 ISBN 9783319321202.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biosensors.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Terry Pratchett Gave Us A Million Dollars For Alzheimer’s Research – Here’s What We Did With It Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Telecommunications: FCC Should Evaluate the Efficiency and Effectiveness of the Lifeline Program; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2015;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
O’Neil, D.M. Climate Frequencies of the Early Holocene from Foy Lake, Montana. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, J. An Actor’s ‘Always-Changing’ Bond With Faith. New York Times 2017, C4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBiosensors
AbbreviationBiosensors (Basel)
ISSN (online)2079-6374
ScopeClinical Biochemistry
General Medicine

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