How to format your references using the Applied Ocean Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Ocean Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J.M. Dijkstra, TH2 and Treg candidate genes in elephant shark, Nature. 511 (2014) E7-9.
A journal article with 2 authors
J.G. Thursby, M.C. Thursby, Intellectual property. University licensing and the Bayh-Dole Act, Science. 301 (2003) 1052.
A journal article with 3 authors
X. Wang, M. Rickert, K.C. Garcia, Structure of the quaternary complex of interleukin-2 with its alpha, beta, and gammac receptors, Science. 310 (2005) 1159–1163.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J.P. Noonan, M. Hofreiter, D. Smith, J.R. Priest, N. Rohland, G. Rabeder, J. Krause, J.C. Detter, S. Pääbo, E.M. Rubin, Genomic sequencing of Pleistocene cave bears, Science. 309 (2005) 597–599.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
C. Andersson, D. Freeman, I. James, A. Johnston, S. Ljung, Mobile Media and Applications - From Concept to Cash, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2006.
An edited book
W. Pequegnat, C.C. Bell, eds., Family and HIV/AIDS: Cultural and Contextual Issues in Prevention and Treatment, Springer, New York, NY, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
A. Scaradavou, Maternal HLA Typing and Cord Blood Unit Choice, in: K. Ballen (Ed.), Umbilical Cord Blood Banking and Transplantation, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014: pp. 49–58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Ocean Research.

Blog post
T. Hale, The World’s Oldest Panda In Captivity Has Died, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Final Certification of TAP Fund, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
K.K. Claypool, Organizational Success: How the Presence of Happiness in the Workplace Affects Employee Engagement that Leads to Organizational Success, Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. Chira, Women Who Voted for Donald Trump, in Their Own Words, New York Times. (2017) A13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Ocean Research
AbbreviationAppl. Ocean Res.
ISSN (print)0141-1187
ScopeOcean Engineering

Other styles