How to format your references using the Applied Ocean Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Ocean Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
V.J. Fabry, Ocean science. Marine calcifiers in a high-CO2 ocean, Science. 320 (2008) 1020–1022.
A journal article with 2 authors
Y. Tan, Z.-Q. Luo, Legionella pneumophila SidD is a deAMPylase that modifies Rab1, Nature. 475 (2011) 506–509.
A journal article with 3 authors
M.A. Long, D.Z. Jin, M.S. Fee, Support for a synaptic chain model of neuronal sequence generation, Nature. 468 (2010) 394–399.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
R.J. Wilson, C.D. Thomas, R. Fox, D.B. Roy, W.E. Kunin, Spatial patterns in species distributions reveal biodiversity change, Nature. 432 (2004) 393–396.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A.R. Mishra, Cellular Technologies for Emerging Markets, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2010.
An edited book
V. Degiorgio, Photonics: A Short Course, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
J.L. Wildman, R.A. Qureshi, M. Salazar, E. Salas, Educational Approaches Across Cultures: Consequences for International I/O Programs, in: R.L. Griffith, L.F. Thompson, B.K. Armon (Eds.), Internationalizing the Curriculum in Organizational Psychology, Springer, New York, NY, 2014: pp. 59–78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Ocean Research.

Blog post
T. Hale, A 2000-Year-Old Dog Burial Site Has Been Found Near The Arctic Circle, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, NASA Procurement Assessments, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
B.M. Clark, Faculty Perceptions of the Importance of Internationalizing the General Education Curriculum in the Florida College System, Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Crow, Plan for a Bryant Park Carousel Comes Around Yet Again, New York Times. (2001) 144.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Ocean Research
AbbreviationAppl. Ocean Res.
ISSN (print)0141-1187
ScopeOcean Engineering

Other styles