How to format your references using the Applied Ocean Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Ocean Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
P. Ball, Science & music: facing the music, Nature. 453 (2008) 160–162.
A journal article with 2 authors
R. Tagle, P. Claeys, Comet or asteroid shower in the late Eocene?, Science. 305 (2004) 492.
A journal article with 3 authors
M.S. Holm, S. Saravanamurugan, E. Taarning, Conversion of sugars to lactic acid derivatives using heterogeneous zeotype catalysts, Science. 328 (2010) 602–605.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
L. Wu, S. Li, W. He, D. Teng, K. Wang, C. Ye, Automatic release of silicon nanowire arrays with a high integrity for flexible electronic devices, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 3940.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
P. Simon, T. Brousse, F. Favier, Supercapacitors Based on Carbon or Pseudocapacitive Materials, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2017.
An edited book
E.M. Duarte, ed., Being and Learning: A Poetic Phenomenology of Education, SensePublishers, Rotterdam, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
D.T. Ginat, L. Farrokh-Siar, F. Yanoga, L. Pasquale, Ophthalmic Imaging and Neuroimaging of the Effects of Glaucoma Treatment, in: D.T. Ginat, S.K. Freitag (Eds.), Post-Treatment Imaging of the Orbit, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2015: pp. 41–63.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Ocean Research.

Blog post
E. Andrew, It’s Not Rocket Science: We Need A Better Way To Get To Space, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Cybersecurity: Recent Data Breaches Illustrate Need for Strong Controls across Federal Agencies, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2015.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C. Lutchman, Leadership impact on turnover among power engineers in the Oil Sands of Alberta, Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Leland, The City Awakens, New York Times. (2017) MB7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Ocean Research
AbbreviationAppl. Ocean Res.
ISSN (print)0141-1187
ScopeOcean Engineering

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