How to format your references using the NeuroImage: Clinical citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for NeuroImage: Clinical. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Oster, G., 2002. Brownian ratchets: Darwin’s motors. Nature 417, 25.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hinck, S., Schiermeier, Q., 2003. Will industry play a bigger role in Europe’s aims to promote mobility among postdocs? Nature 421, 296–297.
A journal article with 3 authors
Elsässer, S.J., Allis, C.D., Lewis, P.W., 2011. Cancer. New epigenetic drivers of cancers. Science 331, 1145–1146.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hsu, M., Bhatt, M., Adolphs, R., Tranel, D., Camerer, C.F., 2005. Neural systems responding to degrees of uncertainty in human decision-making. Science 310, 1680–1683.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Nova, R., 2013. Soil Mechanics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Wittmann, C., Krull, R. (Eds.), 2010. Biosystems Engineering II: Linking Cellular Networks and Bioprocesses, Advances in Biochemical Engineering / Biotechnology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Boer, A., van Engers, T., 2010. Knowledge Acquisition from Sources of Law in Public Administration, in: Cimiano, P., Pinto, H.S. (Eds.), Knowledge Engineering and Management by the Masses: 17th International Conference, EKAW 2010, Lisbon, Portugal, October 11-15, 2010. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 44–58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for NeuroImage: Clinical.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2014. The Moon Gets Broadband Wireless Connection [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2002. Mass Transit: FTA’s New Starts Commitments for Fiscal Year 2003 (No. GAO-02-603). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Selby, C., 2015. With|out (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Goldstein, M., Abrams, R., Protess, B., 2016. Private Equity Hits Close to Home. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Oster, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Hinck and Schiermeier, 2003; Oster, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hinck and Schiermeier, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Hsu et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleNeuroImage: Clinical
AbbreviationNeuroImage Clin.
ISSN (print)2213-1582
ScopeClinical Neurology
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Cognitive Neuroscience

Other styles