How to format your references using the NeuroImage: Clinical citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for NeuroImage: Clinical. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fitzgerald, G., 2010. Drug development needs a new brand of science. Nature 468, 869.
A journal article with 2 authors
Seeber, L., Armbruster, J.G., 2000. Earthquakes as beacons of stress change. Nature 407, 69–72.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lin, X., Clark, A.C., Chan, M.H.W., 2007. Probable heat capacity signature of the supersolid transition. Nature 449, 1025–1028.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lin, S., Dikler, S., Blincoe, W.D., Ferguson, R.D., Sheridan, R.P., Peng, Z., Conway, D.V., Zawatzky, K., Wang, H., Cernak, T., Davies, I.W., DiRocco, D.A., Sheng, H., Welch, C.J., Dreher, S.D., 2018. Mapping the dark space of chemical reactions with extended nanomole synthesis and MALDI-TOF MS. Science 361.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kitajima, M., 2016. Memory and Action Selection in Human-Machine Interaction. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Baklanov, A., Alexander, M., Sokhi, R. (Eds.), 2011. Integrated Systems of Meso-Meteorological and Chemical Transport Models. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Richter, M.M., Weber, R.O., 2013. Case Representations, in: Weber, R.O. (Ed.), Case-Based Reasoning: A Textbook. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 87–111.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for NeuroImage: Clinical.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2014. Using HIV To Cut And Paste The Human Genome [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2000. National Airspace System: Problems Plaguing the Wide Area Augmentation System and FAA’s Actions to Address Them (No. T-RCED-00-229). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wilkins, D., 2015. The Value of the Semantic Differential to the Art Educator (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Yablonsky, L., 2011. Upping the Ante. New York Times M298.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fitzgerald, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Fitzgerald, 2010; Seeber and Armbruster, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Seeber and Armbruster, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Lin et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleNeuroImage: Clinical
AbbreviationNeuroImage Clin.
ISSN (print)2213-1582
ScopeClinical Neurology
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Cognitive Neuroscience

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