How to format your references using the International Journal of Theoretical Physics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Theoretical Physics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Alexander, M.H.: Chemistry. Chemical kinetics under test. Science. 331, 411–412 (2011)
A journal article with 2 authors
Anderson, C.A., Bushman, B.J.: Psychology. The effects of media violence on society. Science. 295, 2377–2379 (2002)
A journal article with 3 authors
Houlié, N., Dreger, D., Kim, A.: GPS source solution of the 2004 Parkfield earthquake. Sci. Rep. 4, 3646 (2014)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Si, M.S., Li, J.Y., Yang, D.Z., Xue, D.S., Zhang, G.P.: Crystal-momentum dispersion of ultrafast spin change in fcc Co. Sci. Rep. 4, 5010 (2014)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gonzalez, R., Qi, F., Huang, B.: Process Control System Fault Diagnosis: A Bayesian Approach. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2016)
An edited book
Galanakis, I., Dederichs, P.H. eds: Half-metallic Alloys: Fundamentals and Applications. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2005)
A chapter in an edited book
Panopoulou, E., Tambouris, E., Tarabanis, K.: eParticipation Initiatives in Europe: Learning from Practitioners. In: Tambouris, E., Macintosh, A., and Glassey, O. (eds.) Electronic Participation: Second IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, ePart 2010, Lausanne, Switzerland, August 29 – September 2, 2010. Proceedings. pp. 54–65. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2010)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Theoretical Physics.

Blog post
Carpineti, A.: Google’s AI Can Now Invent Its Own Cryptography,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Discontinuance of Social Security Student Benefits. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1982)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ratliff, D.J.: Teen parenting curriculum: A grant proposal project, (2009)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Yablonsky, L.: Characters Welcome, (2011)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Theoretical Physics
AbbreviationInt. J. Theor. Phys.
ISSN (print)0020-7748
ISSN (online)1572-9575
ScopeGeneral Mathematics
Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)

Other styles