How to format your references using the International Journal of Theoretical Physics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Theoretical Physics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mervis, J.: Behind the numbers. Salaries pump up biomedical inflation. Science. 349, 225 (2015)
A journal article with 2 authors
Diamond, A., Lee, K.: Interventions shown to aid executive function development in children 4 to 12 years old. Science. 333, 959–964 (2011)
A journal article with 3 authors
Rakitzis, T.P., van den Brom, A.J., Janssen, M.H.M.: Directional dynamics in the photodissociation of oriented molecules. Science. 303, 1852–1854 (2004)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lee, S.J., Woo, S.-I., Ahn, S.H., Lim, D.K., Hong, J.Y., Park, J.H., Lim, J., Kim, M.-K., Kwon, S.W.: Functional interpretation of metabolomics data as a new method for predicting long-term side effects: treatment of atopic dermatitis in infants. Sci. Rep. 4, 7408 (2014)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Motai Ph.D., Y.: Data-Variant Kernel Analysis. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ (2015)
An edited book
Chaari, F., Zimroz, R., Bartelmus, W., Haddar, M. eds: Advances in Condition Monitoring of Machinery in Non-Stationary Operations: Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Condition Monitoring of Machinery in Non-Stationary Operations, CMMNO’2014, Lyon, France December 15-17. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2016)
A chapter in an edited book
Sharma, S., Shukla, K.P., Singh, V., Singh, J., Devi, S., Tewari, A.: Plant–Microbe Symbiosis: Perspectives and Applications. In: Arora, N.K. (ed.) Plant Microbe Symbiosis: Fundamentals and Advances. pp. 119–145. Springer India, New Delhi (2013)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Theoretical Physics.

Blog post
Andrew, D.: How To Talk To Your Dog – According To Science,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Evaluation of NASA Comments on Consolidated Space Operations Center. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1982)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Linsenmeyer, J.P.: A Nice Place to Live and Work: A Mixed-Methods Case Study of a Residential Life Living-Learning Community and Employment Model at a Top-Tier Midwestern University, (2017)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Burns, A., Shear, M.D.: Trump Turmoil Is Confounding G.O.P. Agenda, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Theoretical Physics
AbbreviationInt. J. Theor. Phys.
ISSN (print)0020-7748
ISSN (online)1572-9575
ScopeGeneral Mathematics
Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)

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