How to format your references using the Brain, Behavior and Evolution citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Brain, Behavior and Evolution (BBE). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hopkins PF (2014): Astrophysics: stars fight backNature 516:44–45.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gerson AR, Guglielmo CG (2011): Flight at low ambient humidity increases protein catabolism in migratory birdsScience 333:1434–1436.
A journal article with 3 authors
Maamar H, Raj A, Dubnau D (2007): Noise in gene expression determines cell fate in Bacillus subtilisScience 317:526–529.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Stoll S, Delon J, Brotz TM, Germain RN (2002): Dynamic imaging of T cell-dendritic cell interactions in lymph nodesScience 296:1873–1876.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gutiérrez Í, Meléndez J, Hernández E (2007): Design and Characterization of Integrated Varactors for RF Applications. Chichester, UK, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Dau F, Mugnier M-L, Stumme G (eds.) (2005): Conceptual Structures: Common Semantics for Sharing Knowledge: 13th International Conference on Conceptual Structures, ICCS 2005, Kassel, Germany, July 17-22, 2005. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Hill WG, Zhang X-S (2009): Maintaining Genetic Variation in Fitness; in Werf J van der, Graser H-U, Frankham R, Gondro C (eds): Adaptation and Fitness in Animal Populations: Evolutionary and Breeding Perspectives on Genetic Resource Management. Dordrecht, Springer Netherlands, pp 59–81.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Brain, Behavior and Evolution.

Blog post
Andrew D (2016): What Do Aliens Look Like? The Clue Is In Evolution [Internet]IFLScience [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1993): Food Assistance: Schools That Left the National School Lunch Program. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fortenbery NR (2012): Regulation of Natural Killer Cells: SHIP-1, 2B4, and Immunomodulation by Lenalidomide

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara S (2016): Depicting the Heavens With Paint, Pencil, Even CocaineNew York Times :WE9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleBrain, Behavior and Evolution
AbbreviationBrain Behav. Evol.
ISSN (print)0006-8977
ISSN (online)1421-9743
ScopeBehavioral Neuroscience
Developmental Neuroscience

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