How to format your references using the Brain, Behavior and Evolution citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Brain, Behavior and Evolution (BBE). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brook EJ (2005): Atmospheric science. Tiny bubbles tell allScience 310:1285–1287.
A journal article with 2 authors
Small EM, Olson EN (2011): Pervasive roles of microRNAs in cardiovascular biologyNature 469:336–342.
A journal article with 3 authors
McLeod P, Reed N, Dienes Z (2003): Psychophysics: how fielders arrive in time to catch the ballNature 426:244–245.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Thomas RJ, Krehbiel PR, Rison W, Edens HE, Aulich GD, Winn WP, et al. (2007): Electrical activity during the 2006 Mount St. Augustine volcanic eruptionsScience 315:1097.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schulman FY (2016): Veterinarian’s Guide to Maximizing Biopsy Results. Chichester, UK, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Ayala JL, García-Cámara B, Prieto M, Ruggiero M, Sicard G (eds.) (2011): Integrated Circuit and System Design. Power and Timing Modeling, Optimization, and Simulation: 21st International Workshop, PATMOS 2011, Madrid, Spain, September 26-29, 2011. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Hong SP (2015): Differential Diagnosis Between Inflammatory Bowel Diseases and Other Intestinal Disorders; in Kim WH, Cheon JH (eds): Atlas of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, pp 87–96.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Brain, Behavior and Evolution.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014): Astronomers Measure Exoplanet’s Day For The First Time [Internet]IFLScience [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:’s-day-first-time/


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1966): Comments on Bill To Amend NASA Act of 1958. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Brown JD (2012): Disparity in healthcare among Black Americans in the United States, a review of the literature

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly C (2014): The Trade-Offs of Relocating North to CanadaNew York Times :F6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleBrain, Behavior and Evolution
AbbreviationBrain Behav. Evol.
ISSN (print)0006-8977
ISSN (online)1421-9743
ScopeBehavioral Neuroscience
Developmental Neuroscience

Other styles