How to format your references using the NeuroImage citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for NeuroImage. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Paul, D., 2000. A double-edged sword. Nature 405, 515.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kishore, S., Stamm, S., 2006. The snoRNA HBII-52 regulates alternative splicing of the serotonin receptor 2C. Science 311, 230–232.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kokoouline, V., Greene, C.H., Esry, B.D., 2001. Mechanism for the destruction of H+3 ions by electron impact. Nature 412, 891–894.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Tukiainen, T., Villani, A.-C., Yen, A., Rivas, M.A., Marshall, J.L., Satija, R., Aguirre, M., Gauthier, L., Fleharty, M., Kirby, A., Cummings, B.B., Castel, S.E., Karczewski, K.J., Aguet, F., Byrnes, A., Consortium, G., Lappalainen, T., Regev, A., Ardlie, K.G., Hacohen, N., MacArthur, D.G., 2018. Corrigendum: Landscape of X chromosome inactivation across human tissues. Nature 555, 274.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lad, B.K., Shrivastava, D., Kulkarni, M.S., 2016. Machine Tool Reliability. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Cleveland, R.H. (Ed.), 2012. Imaging in Pediatric Pulmonology. Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Andrés, B., Poler, R., Hernández, J.E., 2013. An Operational Planning Solution for SMEs in Collaborative and Non-Hierarchical Networks, in: Hernández, J.E., Liu, S., Delibašić, B., Zaraté, P., Dargam, F., Ribeiro, R. (Eds.), Decision Support Systems II - Recent Developments Applied to DSS Network Environments: Euro Working Group Workshop, EWG-DSS 2012, Liverpool, UK, April 12-13, 2012, and Vilnius, Lithuania, July 8-11, 2012, Revised Selected and Extended Papers, Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 46–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for NeuroImage.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2016. The Earth’s Biodiversity Could Be Much Greater Than We Thought [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1988. [Comments on Protection of Pricing Information Under GSA Procurement for Telecommunications Services] (No. B-231156). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Richard, K., 2017. College Programs in Women’s Prisons: Faculty Perceptions of Teaching Higher Education Behind Bars (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Neuman, P.W., 2015. La violencia y el progreso se enfrentan en una ciudad en el Pacífico colombiano. New York Times A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Paul, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Kishore and Stamm, 2006; Paul, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kishore and Stamm, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Tukiainen et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleNeuroImage
ISSN (print)1053-8119
ScopeCognitive Neuroscience

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