How to format your references using the NeuroImage citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for NeuroImage. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Reichstein, M., 2010. Journal club. A biogeochemist looks at where all the emitted carbon dioxide is going. Nature 464, 145.
A journal article with 2 authors
Borgdorff, A.J., Choquet, D., 2002. Regulation of AMPA receptor lateral movements. Nature 417, 649–653.
A journal article with 3 authors
Glaser, A., Barak, B., Goldston, R.J., 2014. A zero-knowledge protocol for nuclear warhead verification. Nature 510, 497–502.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Phillips, B.L., Brown, G.P., Webb, J.K., Shine, R., 2006. Invasion and the evolution of speed in toads. Nature 439, 803.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McGrath, A.E., 2011. Luther’s Theology of the Cross. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Volkmann, C.K., Tokarski, K.O., Ernst, K. (Eds.), 2012. Social Entrepreneurship and Social Business: An Introduction and Discussion with Case Studies. Gabler Verlag, Wiesbaden.
A chapter in an edited book
Kaliszewski, I., Miroforidis, J., 2009. Multiple Criteria Decision Making: Efficient Outcome Assessments with Evolutionary Optimization, in: Shi, Y., Wang, S., Peng, Y., Li, J., Zeng, Y. (Eds.), Cutting-Edge Research Topics on Multiple Criteria Decision Making: 20th International Conference, MCDM 2009, Chengdu/Jiuzhaigou, China, June 21-26, 2009. Proceedings, Communications in Computer and Information Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 25–28.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for NeuroImage.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2015. New Layer of Rock Discovered in Earth’s Mantle [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1998. Telecommunications and Information Technology: Federal Programs That Can Be Used to Fund Technology for Schools and Libraries (No. T-HEHS-98-246). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Young, D.L., 2012. A phenomenological investigation of science center exhibition developers’ expertise development (Doctoral dissertation). University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Branch, J., 2017. No White House Visit? Actually, No Invitation. New York Times B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Reichstein, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Borgdorff and Choquet, 2002; Reichstein, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Borgdorff and Choquet, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Phillips et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleNeuroImage
ISSN (print)1053-8119
ScopeCognitive Neuroscience

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