How to format your references using the NeuroImage citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for NeuroImage. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Long, J.C.S., 2011. Piecemeal cuts won’t add up to radical reductions. Nature 478, 429.
A journal article with 2 authors
Seelig, J.D., Jayaraman, V., 2013. Feature detection and orientation tuning in the Drosophila central complex. Nature 503, 262–266.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nam, K.H., Park, I.H., Ko, S.H., 2012. Patterning by controlled cracking. Nature 485, 221–224.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Real, R., Peter, M., Trabalza, A., Khan, S., Smith, M.A., Dopp, J., Barnes, S.J., Momoh, A., Strano, A., Volpi, E., Knott, G., Livesey, F.J., De Paola, V., 2018. In vivo modeling of human neuron dynamics and Down syndrome. Science 362.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ferguson, N., Schneier, B., Kohno, T., 2015. Cryptography Engineering. Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana.
An edited book
Masys, A.J. (Ed.), 2016. Exploring the Security Landscape: Non-Traditional Security Challenges, 1st ed. 2016. ed, Advanced Sciences and Technologies for Security Applications. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Siqueira, T.L.L., Ciferri, R.R., Times, V.C., de Aguiar Ciferri, C.D., 2010. Benchmarking Spatial Data Warehouses, in: Bach Pedersen, T., Mohania, M.K., Tjoa, A.M. (Eds.), Data Warehousing and Knowledge Discovery: 12th International Conference, DAWAK 2010, Bilbao, Spain, August/September 2010. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 40–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for NeuroImage.

Blog post
Taub, B., 2016. Classic Story Of Mankind’s First Migration Through The Americas Not “Biologically Viable” [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1996. Highway Fund Audit (No. AIMD-97-14R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Terrell, S., 2010. How Global Leaders Develop: A Phenomenological Study of Global Leadership Development (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Higgins, A., 2017. Putin-Era Taboo: Dissecting Roots of Nazi Sympathy. New York Times A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Long, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Long, 2011; Seelig and Jayaraman, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Seelig and Jayaraman, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Real et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleNeuroImage
ISSN (print)1053-8119
ScopeCognitive Neuroscience

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