How to format your references using the NeuroImage citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for NeuroImage. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bloom, D.E., 2011. 7 billion and counting. Science 333, 562–569.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wilson, R.I., Nicoll, R.A., 2001. Endogenous cannabinoids mediate retrograde signalling at hippocampal synapses. Nature 410, 588–592.
A journal article with 3 authors
Maertens, G.N., Hare, S., Cherepanov, P., 2010. The mechanism of retroviral integration from X-ray structures of its key intermediates. Nature 468, 326–329.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Deng, W., Guo, J., Hu, J., Zhang, H., 2008. Comment on “100% accuracy in automatic face recognition.” Science 321, 912; author reply 912.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Das, J.C., 2017. Understanding Symmetrical Components for Power System Modeling. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Zannier, U. (Ed.), 2015. Colloquium De Giorgi 2013 and 2014, Publications of the Scuola Normale Superiore. Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa.
A chapter in an edited book
Teng, J.G., Yu, T., Wong, Y.L., 2011. Hybrid FRP-Concrete-Steel Double-Skin Tubular Structural Members, in: Ye, L., Feng, P., Yue, Q. (Eds.), Advances in FRP Composites in Civil Engineering: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on FRP Composites in Civil Engineering (CICE 2010), Sep 27–29, 2010, Beijing, China. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 26–32.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for NeuroImage.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2015. Scientists Find Vessels That Connect Immune System And Brain [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1976. Uses of Minicomputers in the Federal Government: Trends, Benefits, and Problems (No. FGMSD-75-53). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Crowley, K.M., 2019. Dynamics of Creativity: A Study of Early Drug Discovery Scientists’ Experience of Creativity (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M., 2014. Maker Agrees to Modify a Helmet That Was Decertified. New York Times D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bloom, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Bloom, 2011; Wilson and Nicoll, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wilson and Nicoll, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Deng et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleNeuroImage
ISSN (print)1053-8119
ScopeCognitive Neuroscience

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