How to format your references using the NeuroImage citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for NeuroImage. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gewin, V., 2003. Policy-makers in many areas need input from scientists to help them make sound decisions. Nature 422, 452–453.
A journal article with 2 authors
Albuschies, J., Vogel, V., 2013. The role of filopodia in the recognition of nanotopographies. Sci. Rep. 3, 1658.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bartels, T., Choi, J.G., Selkoe, D.J., 2011. α-Synuclein occurs physiologically as a helically folded tetramer that resists aggregation. Nature 477, 107–110.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Alt, A., Lammens, K., Chiocchini, C., Lammens, A., Pieck, J.C., Kuch, D., Hopfner, K.-P., Carell, T., 2007. Bypass of DNA lesions generated during anticancer treatment with cisplatin by DNA polymerase eta. Science 318, 967–970.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Misstear, B., Banks, D., Clark, L., 2017. Water Wells and Boreholes. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Montoya Sánchez de Pablo, J., 2016. How Green are Electric or Hydrogen-Powered Cars?: Assessing GHG Emissions of Traffic in Spain, SpringerBriefs in Energy. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Rigamonti, G., 2011. Bertrand Russell, in: Bartocci, C., Betti, R., Guerraggio, A., Lucchetti, R. (Eds.), Mathematical Lives: Protagonists of the Twentieth Century From Hilbert to Wiles. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 27–35.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for NeuroImage.

Blog post
Andrews, R., 2015. Incredible New Images Of Jupiter Reveal Details Behind Shrinking Great Red Spot [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1976. Bilingual Education: An Unmet Need (No. MWD-76-25). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Battaglia, M., 2015. Presenting a pluralized past: Assessing the efficacy of multivocal, bison-themed lesson units as a public education and outreach strategy for archaeology (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara, S., 2015. Art Rooted in Matters of the Heart and the Mind. New York Times CT8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gewin, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Albuschies and Vogel, 2013; Gewin, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Albuschies and Vogel, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Alt et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleNeuroImage
ISSN (print)1053-8119
ScopeCognitive Neuroscience

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