How to format your references using the Neurobiology of Learning and Memory citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neurobiology of Learning and Memory. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Yamamoto, Y. (2000). Semiconductor physics. Half-matter, half-light amplifier. Nature, 405(6787), 629–630.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gatenby, R. A., & Maini, P. K. (2003). Mathematical oncology: cancer summed up. Nature, 421(6921), 321.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yekta, S., Shih, I.-H., & Bartel, D. P. (2004). MicroRNA-directed cleavage of HOXB8 mRNA. Science (New York, N.Y.), 304(5670), 594–596.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Weng, K. C., Castilho, P. C., Morrissette, J. M., Landeira-Fernandez, A. M., Holts, D. B., Schallert, R. J., Goldman, K. J., & Block, B. A. (2005). Satellite tagging and cardiac physiology reveal niche expansion in salmon sharks. Science (New York, N.Y.), 310(5745), 104–106.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ramirez, J. (2007). Accounting for Derivatives. John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
An edited book
Tsui, B. C. H., & Suresh, S. (Eds.). (2016). Pediatric Atlas of Ultrasound- and Nerve Stimulation-Guided Regional Anesthesia (1st ed. 2016). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Sykes, P. (2010). Traffic Simulation with Paramics. In J. Barceló (Ed.), Fundamentals of Traffic Simulation (pp. 131–171). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neurobiology of Learning and Memory.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2016, June 29). Interstellar Greenhouses: How A Single Molecule Could Be Key To Growing Plants In Microgravity. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1996). Telecommunications: Costs Reported by Federal Organizations for Fiscal Year 1995 (AIMD-96-105). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bergemann, E. (2009). Exploring psychotherapist empathic attunement from a psychoneurobiological perspective: Is empathy enhanced by yoga and meditation? [Doctoral dissertation]. Pacifica Graduate Institute.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B. (2017, August 17). Whitney: Can I Be Me. New York Times, C9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Yamamoto, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Gatenby & Maini, 2003; Yamamoto, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gatenby & Maini, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Yekta et al., 2004)
  • 6 or more authors: (Weng et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleNeurobiology of Learning and Memory
AbbreviationNeurobiol. Learn. Mem.
ISSN (print)1074-7427
ScopeBehavioral Neuroscience
Cognitive Neuroscience
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology

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