How to format your references using the Neurobiology of Learning and Memory citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neurobiology of Learning and Memory. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bonetta, L. (2010). Protein-protein interactions: Interactome under construction. Nature, 468(7325), 851–854.
A journal article with 2 authors
Levine, B. L., & June, C. H. (2013). Perspective: assembly line immunotherapy. Nature, 498(7455), S17.
A journal article with 3 authors
Che, H., Drake, J. F., & Swisdak, M. (2011). A current filamentation mechanism for breaking magnetic field lines during reconnection. Nature, 474(7350), 184–187.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Yun, B.-W., Feechan, A., Yin, M., Saidi, N. B. B., Le Bihan, T., Yu, M., Moore, J. W., Kang, J.-G., Kwon, E., Spoel, S. H., Pallas, J. A., & Loake, G. J. (2011). S-nitrosylation of NADPH oxidase regulates cell death in plant immunity. Nature, 478(7368), 264–268.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wartewig, S. (2005). IR and Raman Spectroscopy. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Lee, S. Y. (2014). Green Leadership in China: Management Strategies from China’s Most Responsible Companies (A. Ramasamy & J. H. Rhee, Eds.). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Bondyra, A., Gardecki, S., Gąsior, P., & Kasiński, A. (2015). Falcon: A Compact Multirotor Flying Platform with High Load Capability. In R. Szewczyk, C. Zieliński, & M. Kaliczyńska (Eds.), Progress in Automation, Robotics and Measuring Techniques: Volume 2 Robotics (pp. 35–44). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neurobiology of Learning and Memory.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014, October 22). Tiny Tags on Baby Sea Turtles Detail Elusive “Swimming Frenzy” Period. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1996). SSA Initiatives to Identify Coaching (HEHS-96-96R). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kannanthanathu, A. F. (2017). Wavelet Transform and Ensemble Logistic Regression for Driver Drowsiness Detection [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rosenberg, E. (2016, February 17). Denise Matthews, 57, Singer Known as Vanity. New York Times, B16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bonetta, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Bonetta, 2010; Levine & June, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Levine & June, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Che et al., 2011)
  • 6 or more authors: (Yun et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleNeurobiology of Learning and Memory
AbbreviationNeurobiol. Learn. Mem.
ISSN (print)1074-7427
ScopeBehavioral Neuroscience
Cognitive Neuroscience
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology

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