How to format your references using the Neurobiology of Learning and Memory citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neurobiology of Learning and Memory. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Knapp, S. (2002). Fact and fantasy. The zoology created by our imagination is far outstripped by that of reality. Nature, 415(6871), 479.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gehring, W. J., & Willoughby, A. R. (2002). The medial frontal cortex and the rapid processing of monetary gains and losses. Science (New York, N.Y.), 295(5563), 2279–2282.
A journal article with 3 authors
Suvà, M. L., Riggi, N., & Bernstein, B. E. (2013). Epigenetic reprogramming in cancer. Science (New York, N.Y.), 339(6127), 1567–1570.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Dulub, O., Batzilln, M., Solovev, S., Loginova, E., Alchagirov, A., Madey, T. E., & Diebold, U. (2007). Electron-induced oxygen desorption from the TiO2(011)-2x1 surface leads to self-organized vacancies. Science (New York, N.Y.), 317(5841), 1052–1056.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Blanchet, G., & Charbit, M. (2015). Digital Signal and Image Processing Using Matlab®. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Drira, K. (Ed.). (2013). Software Architecture: 7th European Conference, ECSA 2013, Montpellier, France, July 1-5, 2013. Proceedings (Vol. 7957). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Engesgaard, P., Seifert, D., & Herrera, P. (2006). Bioclogging in Porous Media: Tracer Studies. In S. A. Hubbs (Ed.), Riverbank Filtration Hydrology: Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Riverbank Filtration Hydrology Bratislava, Slovakia September 2004 (pp. 93–118). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neurobiology of Learning and Memory.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2016, October 20). Two Faults Beneath California Are Connected In A Destructive Embrace. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1994). Electronic Signature Prototype System (AIMD-94-70R). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Oduntan, A. (2017). The Rheological Study of the Effects of Surfactant and Hydrophilic Bentonite Nano clay on Oil in Water Emulsions for Enhanced Oil Recovery [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Johnson, G. (2016, July 5). The Brain Versus the Mind. New York Times, D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Knapp, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Gehring & Willoughby, 2002; Knapp, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gehring & Willoughby, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Suvà et al., 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (Dulub et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleNeurobiology of Learning and Memory
AbbreviationNeurobiol. Learn. Mem.
ISSN (print)1074-7427
ScopeBehavioral Neuroscience
Cognitive Neuroscience
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology

Other styles