How to format your references using the Neurobiology of Learning and Memory citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neurobiology of Learning and Memory. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Deary, I. (2008). Why do intelligent people live longer? Nature, 456(7219), 175–176.
A journal article with 2 authors
Campbell, C. S., & Desai, A. (2013). Tension sensing by Aurora B kinase is independent of survivin-based centromere localization. Nature, 497(7447), 118–121.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ko, H. W., Jiang, J., & Edery, I. (2002). Role for Slimb in the degradation of Drosophila Period protein phosphorylated by Doubletime. Nature, 420(6916), 673–678.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Roos, C. F., Chwalla, M., Kim, K., Riebe, M., & Blatt, R. (2006). “Designer atoms” for quantum metrology. Nature, 443(7109), 316–319.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fernandez-Maloigne, C., Robert-Inacio, F., & Macaire, L. (2012). Digital Color. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Schaltegger, S., Zvezdov, D., Alvarez Etxeberria, I., Csutora, M., & Günther, E. (Eds.). (2015). Corporate Carbon and Climate Accounting (1st ed. 2015). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Su, X., Fucci, D., & Riekki, J. (2010). A Framework to Enable Two-Layer Inference for Ambient Intelligence. In J. C. Augusto, J. M. Corchado, P. Novais, & C. Analide (Eds.), Ambient Intelligence and Future Trends-International Symposium on Ambient Intelligence (ISAmI 2010) (pp. 29–36). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neurobiology of Learning and Memory.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2016, August 11). Cassini Sees Canyons On Titan. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2005). Medicaid: States’ Efforts to Maximize Federal Reimbursements Highlight Need for Improved Federal Oversight (GAO-05-836T). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bradford, A. (2015). Internationalization Policy at the Genba: Exploring the Implementation of Social Science English-Taught Undergraduate Degree Programs in Three Japanese Universities [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Hubbard, B. (2016, September 23). Aleppo Reeling as Air Assaults Are Stepped Up. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Deary, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Campbell & Desai, 2013; Deary, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Campbell & Desai, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Ko et al., 2002)
  • 6 or more authors: (Roos et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleNeurobiology of Learning and Memory
AbbreviationNeurobiol. Learn. Mem.
ISSN (print)1074-7427
ScopeBehavioral Neuroscience
Cognitive Neuroscience
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology

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