How to format your references using the Neurobiology of Learning and Memory citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neurobiology of Learning and Memory. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McCormick, S. (2007). Plant science. Reproductive dialog. Science (New York, N.Y.), 317(5838), 606–607.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mohr, J. J., & Forsberg, R. (2002). Remote sensing: searching for new islands in sea ice. Nature, 416(6876), 35.
A journal article with 3 authors
Liu, X., Gross, R. L., & Suits, A. G. (2001). “Heavy electron” photoelectron spectroscopy: rotationally resolved ion pair imaging of CH3+. Science (New York, N.Y.), 294(5551), 2527–2529.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Qi, B., Cong, Q., Li, P., Ma, G., Guo, X., Yeh, J., Xie, M., Schneider, M. D., Liu, H., & Li, B. (2014). Ablation of Tak1 in osteoclast progenitor leads to defects in skeletal growth and bone remodeling in mice. Scientific Reports, 4, 7158.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stavetski, E. J. (2009). Managing Hedge Fund Managers. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Botterill, L. C., & Wilhite, D. A. (Eds.). (2005). From Disaster Response to Risk Management: Australia’s National Drought Policy (Vol. 22). Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Purkayastha, B. B., & Sarma, K. K. (2015). Digital Phase-Locked Loop. In K. K. Sarma (Ed.), A Digital Phase Locked Loop based Signal and Symbol Recovery System for Wireless Channel (pp. 103–126). Springer India.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neurobiology of Learning and Memory.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, September 9). Scientists Levitate Nanodiamonds Using Lasers. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2015). Information Technology: Implementation of Reform Legislation Needed to Improve Acquisitions and Operations (GAO-16-204T). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cordova, M. (2009). The impact of a teacher training program on student engagement [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hofmann, M. (2017, June 16). Personality Is Everything. New York Times, BR16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (McCormick, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (McCormick, 2007; Mohr & Forsberg, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mohr & Forsberg, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Liu et al., 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Qi et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleNeurobiology of Learning and Memory
AbbreviationNeurobiol. Learn. Mem.
ISSN (print)1074-7427
ScopeBehavioral Neuroscience
Cognitive Neuroscience
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology

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