How to format your references using the Neurobiology of Learning and Memory citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neurobiology of Learning and Memory. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mirabel, I. F. (2012). Astronomy. Gamma-ray binaries revealed. Science (New York, N.Y.), 335(6065), 175–176.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ahima, R. S., & Lazar, M. A. (2013). Physiology. The health risk of obesity--better metrics imperative. Science (New York, N.Y.), 341(6148), 856–858.
A journal article with 3 authors
Oh, K., Jeong, K. S., & Moore, J. S. (2001). Folding-driven synthesis of oligomers. Nature, 414(6866), 889–893.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Woods, G. L., White, K. L., Vanderwall, D. K., Li, G.-P., Aston, K. I., Bunch, T. D., … Pate, B. J. (2003). A mule cloned from fetal cells by nuclear transfer. Science (New York, N.Y.), 301(5636), 1063.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lader, E. W. (2013). Field Guide to the Arrhythmias. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
An edited book
Cabe Trundle, K., & Saçkes, M. (Eds.). (2015). Research in Early Childhood Science Education. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhou, Y., & Qin, Y. (2012). Income Inequality of China’s Total Resident and the Factors Which Impact It. In Y. Qin (Ed.), Empirical Analysis on Income Inequality of Chinese Residents (pp. 125–149). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neurobiology of Learning and Memory.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, July 27). Nigeria Celebrates One Year Without Polio Case. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1993). Software Reuse: Major Issues Need to Be Resolved Before Benefits Can Be Achieved (No. IMTEC-93-16). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chen, G. (2005). Essays On Using Weather Derivatives In Dairy Production (Doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W. (2012, November 30). Experts Fear Life Insurers Are Courting Reserve Risk. New York Times, p. B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mirabel, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Ahima & Lazar, 2013; Mirabel, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ahima & Lazar, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Oh, Jeong, & Moore, 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Woods et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleNeurobiology of Learning and Memory
AbbreviationNeurobiol. Learn. Mem.
ISSN (print)1074-7427
ScopeBehavioral Neuroscience
Cognitive Neuroscience
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology

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