How to format your references using the Neurobiology of Learning and Memory citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neurobiology of Learning and Memory. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wang, H. (2014). A double dose of advice. Science (New York, N.Y.), 346(6208), 510.
A journal article with 2 authors
Park, C. Y., & Dolmetsch, R. (2006). Cell signaling. The double life of a transcription factor takes it outside the nucleus. Science (New York, N.Y.), 314(5796), 64–65.
A journal article with 3 authors
Karlin, S., Bergman, A., & Gentles, A. J. (2001). Genomics. Annotation of the Drosophila genome. Nature, 411(6835), 259–260.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Lee, W., Jiang, Z., Liu, J., Haverty, P. M., Guan, Y., Stinson, J., Yue, P., Zhang, Y., Pant, K. P., Bhatt, D., Ha, C., Johnson, S., Kennemer, M. I., Mohan, S., Nazarenko, I., Watanabe, C., Sparks, A. B., Shames, D. S., Gentleman, R., … Zhang, Z. (2010). The mutation spectrum revealed by paired genome sequences from a lung cancer patient. Nature, 465(7297), 473–477.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Samuel, G. R. (2010). Formulas and Calculations for Drilling Operations. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Rosado, J. A. (Ed.). (2016). Calcium Entry Pathways in Non-excitable Cells (Vol. 898). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Manhães, M., & Dávila, G. A. (2016). The Innovation Triple Challenge: A Creativity Check for SMES. In K. North & G. Varvakis (Eds.), Competitive Strategies for Small and Medium Enterprises: Increasing Crisis Resilience, Agility and Innovation in Turbulent Times (pp. 77–92). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neurobiology of Learning and Memory.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2016, May 9). Scientists Reveal How Humanity Could Survive The End Of The World. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1992). Airline Competition: Industry Competitive and Financial Problems (T-RCED-92-28). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Waldron, K. D. (2017). The Influence of Leadership Emotional Intelligence on Employee Engagement [Doctoral dissertation]. Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Conte, L. (2011, March 17). Scouting Report. New York Times, E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wang, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Park & Dolmetsch, 2006; Wang, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Park & Dolmetsch, 2006)
  • Three authors: (Karlin et al., 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Lee et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleNeurobiology of Learning and Memory
AbbreviationNeurobiol. Learn. Mem.
ISSN (print)1074-7427
ScopeBehavioral Neuroscience
Cognitive Neuroscience
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology

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