How to format your references using the Neurobiology of Learning and Memory citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neurobiology of Learning and Memory. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goldston, D. (2007). A word in the right place. Nature, 445(7129), 698.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ginther, D. K., & Kahn, S. (2015). WOMEN IN SCIENCE. Comment on “Expectations of brilliance underlie gender distributions across academic disciplines.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 349(6246), 391.
A journal article with 3 authors
Waghmare, P. R., Das, S., & Mitra, S. K. (2013). Under-water superoleophobic glass: unexplored role of the surfactant-rich solvent. Scientific Reports, 3, 1862.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Gallavotti, A., Zhao, Q., Kyozuka, J., Meeley, R. B., Ritter, M. K., Doebley, J. F., … Schmidt, R. J. (2004). The role of barren stalk1 in the architecture of maize. Nature, 432(7017), 630–635.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schepers, U. (2004). RNA Interference in Practice. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Jónasson, K. (Ed.). (2012). Applied Parallel and Scientific Computing: 10th International Conference, PARA 2010, Reykjavík, Iceland, June 6-9, 2010, Revised Selected Papers, Part I. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Cimatti, A., Griggio, A., Mover, S., & Tonetta, S. (2014). IC3 Modulo Theories via Implicit Predicate Abstraction. In E. Ábrahám & K. Havelund (Eds.), Tools and Algorithms for the Construction and Analysis of Systems: 20th International Conference, TACAS 2014, Held as Part of the European Joint Conferences on Theory and Practice of Software, ETAPS 2014, Grenoble, France, April 5-13, 2014. Proceedings (pp. 46–61). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neurobiology of Learning and Memory.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, September 19). 25 Strangest Things Found on an X-Ray. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from IFLScience website:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1989). Aviation Safety: Facility Ranking of Controller Survey Responses (No. RCED-90-39). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Santella Steen, S. (2017). The Potential of Television Programming as a Resource to Facilitate Academic Progress for Students who have a Specific Learning Disability in Reading (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum, M. M. (2017, May 17). White House Is Fighting A Familiar Foe: The Press. New York Times, p. A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Goldston, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Ginther & Kahn, 2015; Goldston, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ginther & Kahn, 2015)
  • Three authors: (Waghmare, Das, & Mitra, 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (Gallavotti et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleNeurobiology of Learning and Memory
AbbreviationNeurobiol. Learn. Mem.
ISSN (print)1074-7427
ScopeBehavioral Neuroscience
Cognitive Neuroscience
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology

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