How to format your references using the Neural Processing Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neural Processing Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Abbott A (2010) Levodopa: the story so far. Nature 466:S6-7
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Stebbins CE, Galán JE (2001) Structural mimicry in bacterial virulence. Nature 412:701–705
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Ross RJ, Weiner MM, Lin H (2014) PIWI proteins and PIWI-interacting RNAs in the soma. Nature 505:353–359
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1.
Pacala SW, Bulte E, List JA, Levin SA (2003) Environmental economics. False alarm over environmental false alarms. Science 301:1187–1188

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Russell DL (2006) Practical Wastewater Treatment. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
1.
Roa Romero LM (2014) XIII Mediterranean Conference on Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing 2013: MEDICON 2013, 25-28 September 2013, Seville, Spain. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Musat D, Castaño V, Calvo-Manzano JA, Garbajosa J (2010) MATURE: A Model Driven bAsed Tool to Automatically Generate a langUage That suppoRts CMMI Process Areas spEcification. In: Riel A, O’Connor R, Tichkiewitch S, Messnarz R (eds) Systems, Software and Services Process Improvement: 17th European Conference, EuroSPI 2010, Grenoble, France, September 1-3, 2010. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 48–59

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neural Processing Letters.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E (2014) Idiot Jumps On Top Of Tiger Shark. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/idiot-jumps-top-tiger-shark/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office (1974) Assessment of the Work Incentive Program in Washington State. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Doyle JJ (2012) Under the influence: High risk social networks and recidivism. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Palmer E, Otis J (2016) Neediest Cases Fund Opens 105th Campaign. New York Times A30

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNeural Processing Letters
AbbreviationNeural Process. Lett.
ISSN (print)1370-4621
ISSN (online)1573-773X
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Computer Networks and Communications
Software
General Neuroscience

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