How to format your references using the Neural Processing Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neural Processing Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Marx V (2014) A deep look at synaptic dynamics. Nature 515:293–297
A journal article with 2 authors
Bogdanove AJ, Voytas DF (2011) TAL effectors: customizable proteins for DNA targeting. Science 333:1843–1846
A journal article with 3 authors
Truckses DM, Garrenton LS, Thorner J (2004) Jekyll and Hyde in the microbial world. Science 306:1509–1511
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Rosskopf D, Bornhorst A, Rimmbach C, et al (2007) Comment on “A common genetic variant is associated with adult and childhood obesity.” Science 315:187; author reply 187

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stahl S, Stenson C (2013) Introduction to Topology and Geometry. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Daněk M (2013) UTLEON3: Exploring Fine-Grain Multi-Threading in FPGAs. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Braun AG, Lettnin DV, Gerlach J, Rosenstiel W (2006) Automated Conversion of SystemC Fixed-Point Data Types. In: Glesner M, Reis R, Indrusiak L, et al (eds) VLSI-SOC: From Systems to Chips: IFIP TC 10/ WG 10.5 Twelfth International Conference on Very Large Scale Integration of System on Chip (VLSI-SoC 2003), December 1–3, 2003, Darmstadt, Germany. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp 55–72

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neural Processing Letters.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Keychain First Aid Kit Might Help Save The Bees. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1992) Tax Systems Modernization: Progress Mixed In Addressing Critical Success Factors. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jackson MA (2015) An action research study of collaborative relationhips between psychotherapists and medical doctors. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K (2008) Freshness City Dwellers Hunger For. New York Times NJ11

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNeural Processing Letters
AbbreviationNeural Process. Lett.
ISSN (print)1370-4621
ISSN (online)1573-773X
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Computer Networks and Communications
General Neuroscience

Other styles