How to format your references using the Frontiers in Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stanley HE. Freezing by heating. Nature (2000) 404:718–719.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kale MJ, Christopher P. PHYSICS. Plasmons at the interface. Science (2015) 349:587–588.
A journal article with 3 authors
He CY, Pypaert M, Warren G. Golgi duplication in Trypanosoma brucei requires Centrin2. Science (2005) 310:1196–1198.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Wienholds E, Schulte-Merker S, Walderich B, Plasterk RHA. Target-selected inactivation of the zebrafish rag1 gene. Science (2002) 297:99–102.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ytterdal T, Cheng Y, Fjeldly TA. Device Modeling for Analog and RF CMOS Circuit Design. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd (2003).
An edited book
Zhang F ed. The Schur Complement and Its Applications. Boston, MA: Springer US (2005).
A chapter in an edited book
Bhattacharjee P, Das K, De M, De D. “SPICE Modeling and Analysis for Metal Island Ternary QCA Logic Device,” in Information Systems Design and Intelligent Applications: Proceedings of Second International Conference INDIA 2015, Volume 1 Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing., eds. J. K. Mandal, S. C. Satapathy, M. Kumar Sanyal, P. P. Sarkar, A. Mukhopadhyay (New Delhi: Springer India), 33–41.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Oncology.

Blog post
Carpineti A. New Early Warning System Can Predict Tornadoes 30 Minutes Before They Hit The Ground. IFLScience (2016) Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Student Mentoring Programs: Education’s Monitoring and Information Sharing Could Be Improved. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office (2004).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Garcia AD. Long-term shifts in adolescent Nicotine reward following early methylphenidate exposure in male and female rats. (2013)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Capecchi C, Williams T. Helicopter Crash Victims Named. New York Times (2011)A13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Oncology
AbbreviationFront. Oncol.
ISSN (online)2234-943X
ScopeCancer Research

Other styles