How to format your references using the Frontiers in Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Danger B. Don’t stop me now. Nature (2007) 445:334–335.
A journal article with 2 authors
Packer A, Clay K. Soil pathogens and spatial patterns of seedling mortality in a temperate tree. Nature (2000) 404:278–281.
A journal article with 3 authors
Vassilopoulos G, Wang P-R, Russell DW. Transplanted bone marrow regenerates liver by cell fusion. Nature (2003) 422:901–904.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Segall P, Desmarais EK, Shelly D, Miklius A, Cervelli P. Earthquakes triggered by silent slip events on Kīlauea volcano, Hawaii. Nature (2006) 442:71–74.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
New TR. Hymenoptera and Conservation. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd (2012).
An edited book
Drechsler K, Erdt M, Linguraru MG, Oyarzun Laura C, Sharma K, Shekhar R, Wesarg S eds. Clinical Image-Based Procedures. From Planning to Intervention: International Workshop, CLIP 2012, Held in Conjunction with MICCAI 2012, Nice, France, October 5, 2012, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer (2013).
A chapter in an edited book
Kunusch C, Puleston P, Mayosky M. “Control-Oriented Modelling and Experimental Validation of a PEMFC Generation System,” in Sliding-Mode Control of PEM Fuel Cells Advances in Industrial Control., eds. P. Puleston, M. Mayosky (London: Springer), 105–128.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Oncology.

Blog post
Fang J. Tiny Sea Monkeys Drive Ocean Currents. IFLScience (2014) Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Coast Guard: Clarifying the Application of Guidance for Common Operational Picture Development Would Strengthen Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office (2013).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Solorzano E. A mindfulness-based psycho-educational group for caregivers of older adults: A grant proposal. (2014)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kanter J. E.U. Lawmakers Approve Canada Trade Deal, in Message to Trump. New York Times (2017)B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Oncology
AbbreviationFront. Oncol.
ISSN (online)2234-943X
ScopeCancer Research

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