How to format your references using the Frontiers in Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kreeger K. Seeking strength in numbers. Nature (2003) 421:194.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jones AG, Ferguson IJ. The electric Moho. Nature (2001) 409:331–333.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jiang W-L, He H-W, Yang Z-J. The angiotensinogen gene polymorphism is associated with heart failure among Asians. Sci Rep (2014) 4:4207.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Denicol AC, Dobbs KB, McLean KM, Carambula SF, Loureiro B, Hansen PJ. Canonical WNT signaling regulates development of bovine embryos to the blastocyst stage. Sci Rep (2013) 3:1266.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Alexander M, Walkenbach J. Excel® Dashboards & Reports. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Publishing, Inc. (2010).
An edited book
Sakawa M. Fuzzy Stochastic Multiobjective Programming. Nishizaki I, Katagiri H, editors. New York, NY: Springer (2011). XII, 264 p p.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhang L, Zhu Y, Shi P, Lu Q. “Control.,” In: Zhu Y, Shi P, Lu Q, editors. Time-Dependent Switched Discrete-Time Linear Systems: Control and Filtering. Studies in Systems, Decision and Control. Cham: Springer International Publishing (2016). p. 87–125

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Oncology.

Blog post
Andrews R. Mysterious Martian Plumes May Have Been Caused By Powerful Solar Ejections. IFLScience (2016)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Older Americans: Inability to Repay Student Loans May Affect Financial Security of a Small Percentage of Retirees. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office (2014).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zivkovic O. Ternary nanomaterials: Synthesis by alkalide reduction and characterization. [Doctoral dissertation]. Washington, DC: George Washington University (2010).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara S. Depicting the Heavens With Paint, Pencil, Even Cocaine. New York Times (2016)WE9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Oncology
AbbreviationFront. Oncol.
ISSN (online)2234-943X
ScopeCancer Research

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