How to format your references using the Neural Computing and Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neural Computing and Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Wehrwein P (2012) Stem cells: Repeat to fade. Nature 492:S12-3
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Gao KQ, Shubin NH (2001) Late Jurassic salamanders from northern China. Nature 410:574–577
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Standen EM, Du TY, Larsson HCE (2014) Developmental plasticity and the origin of tetrapods. Nature 513:54–58
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1.
Huber D, Petreanu L, Ghitani N, et al (2008) Sparse optical microstimulation in barrel cortex drives learned behaviour in freely moving mice. Nature 451:61–64

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Yavaş M (2011) Applied English Phonology. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK
An edited book
1.
McCready E, Yabushita K, Yoshimoto K (2014) Formal Approaches to Semantics and Pragmatics: Japanese and Beyond. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Sugiura M, Ohiwa H (2007) A Supporting System of Informatics Education for University Freshmen. In: Tatnall A, Okamoto T, Visscher A (eds) Knowledge Management for Educational Innovation: IFIP WG 3.7 7th Conference on Information Technology in Educational Management (ITEM), Hamamatsu, Japan, July 23–26, 2006. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp 27–32

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neural Computing and Applications.

Blog post
1.
Hamilton K (2016) Health Check: Which Fruits Are Healthier, And In What Form? In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/health-check-which-fruits-are-healthier-and-in-what-form/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office (1980) Federal Assistance System Should Be Changed To Permit Greater Involvement by State Legislatures. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Fischer D (2012) Psychology and people living with hiv/aids: A critical review of the literature. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Leland J (2016) Chess Tournament Kicks Off With V.I.P. Treatment. New York Times A23

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNeural Computing and Applications
AbbreviationNeural Comput. Appl.
ISSN (print)0941-0643
ISSN (online)1433-3058
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Software

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