How to format your references using the Neural Computing and Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neural Computing and Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Victor P (2010) Questioning economic growth. Nature 468:370–371
A journal article with 2 authors
Tarasov L, Peltier WR (2005) Arctic freshwater forcing of the Younger Dryas cold reversal. Nature 435:662–665
A journal article with 3 authors
Coleman SW, Patricelli GL, Borgia G (2004) Variable female preferences drive complex male displays. Nature 428:742–745
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Leventhal AG, Wang Y, Pu M, et al (2003) GABA and its agonists improved visual cortical function in senescent monkeys. Science 300:812–815

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ryan TP (2011) Statistical Methods for Quality Improvement: Ryan/Quality Improvement 3E. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Platanias LC (2005) Cytokines and Cancer. Springer US, Boston, MA
A chapter in an edited book
Pistone G, Vicario G (2009) Design for Computer Experiments: Comparing and Generating Designs in Kriging Models. In: Erto P (ed) Statistics for Innovation: Statistical Design of “Continuous” Product Innovation. Springer, Milano, pp 91–102

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neural Computing and Applications.

Blog post
Hamilton K (2016) Most Antidepressant Medications Don’t Work For Children And Teens, Claims Study. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1995) General Government Information Systems Issue Area: Active Assignments. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rodman RA (2010) Casual factors that contribute to gender bias in career choice among junior high school age females. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Waldman J (2017) Thoreau’s Distressing Canoe Trip. New York Times A19

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNeural Computing and Applications
AbbreviationNeural Comput. Appl.
ISSN (print)0941-0643
ISSN (online)1433-3058
ScopeArtificial Intelligence

Other styles