How to format your references using the Neural Computing and Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neural Computing and Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Eisenstein M (2015) Super-resolve me: from micro to nano. Nature 526:459–462
A journal article with 2 authors
Pérez-Gussinyé M, Watts AB (2005) The long-term strength of Europe and its implications for plate-forming processes. Nature 436:381–384
A journal article with 3 authors
Powell KI, Chase JM, Knight TM (2013) Invasive plants have scale-dependent effects on diversity by altering species-area relationships. Science 339:316–318
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Tan CSH, Go KD, Bisteau X, et al (2018) Thermal proximity coaggregation for system-wide profiling of protein complex dynamics in cells. Science 359:1170–1177

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stephanie Hammer (2013) Architects of Electronic Trading. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Morschett D (2010) Strategic International Management: Text and Cases, 2nd ed. Gabler, Wiesbaden
A chapter in an edited book
Pincelli C, Marconi A (2013) Keratinocyte Stem Cells: Biology and Clinical Applications. In: Baharvand H, Aghdami N (eds) Regenerative Medicine and Cell Therapy. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, pp 57–64

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neural Computing and Applications.

Blog post
Andrew D (2016) Curbing The Marijuana Industry’s Voracious Energy Appetite. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2006) Financial Management Systems: DHS Has an Opportunity to Incorporate Best Practices in Modernization Efforts. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wheat BR (2015) Effects of intercropping switchgrass in managed pine stands on plant communities and white-tailed deer forage production. Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Alcindor Y (2017) ‘Auntie Maxine,’ House Veteran Who’s Had It Up to Here With Trump. New York Times A13

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNeural Computing and Applications
AbbreviationNeural Comput. Appl.
ISSN (print)0941-0643
ISSN (online)1433-3058
ScopeArtificial Intelligence

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