How to format your references using the NETNOMICS: Economic Research and Electronic Networking citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for NETNOMICS: Economic Research and Electronic Networking. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chyba, C. F. (2005). Atmospheric science. Rethinking Earth’s early atmosphere. Science (New York, N.Y.), 308(5724), 962–963.
A journal article with 2 authors
Abrahamson, J., & Dinniss, J. (2000). Ball lightning caused by oxidation of nanoparticle networks from normal lightning strikes on soil. Nature, 403(6769), 519–521.
A journal article with 3 authors
Miller, J. D., Scott, E. C., & Okamoto, S. (2006). Science communication. Public acceptance of evolution. Science (New York, N.Y.), 313(5788), 765–766.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Jiang, W., Baker, M. L., Jakana, J., Weigele, P. R., King, J., & Chiu, W. (2008). Backbone structure of the infectious epsilon15 virus capsid revealed by electron cryomicroscopy. Nature, 451(7182), 1130–1134.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kölle, W. (2017). Wasseranalysen - richtig beurteilt. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Ichalkaranje, N., Ichalkaranje, A., & Jain, L. C. (Eds.). (2006). Intelligent Paradigms for Assistive and Preventive Healthcare (Vol. 19). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Van Biesbrouck, M., Eeckhout, L., & Calder, B. (2005). Efficient Sampling Startup for Sampled Processor Simulation. In T. Conte, N. Navarro, W.-M. W. Hwu, M. Valero, & T. Ungerer (Eds.), High Performance Embedded Architectures and Compilers: First International Conference, HiPEAC 2005, Barcelona, Spain, November 17-18, 2005. Proceedings (pp. 47–67). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for NETNOMICS: Economic Research and Electronic Networking.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015, July 28). Turtles Seem Surprisingly Unafraid Of Sharks. IFLScience. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1984). Attrition of Scientists and Engineers at Seven Agencies (No. RCED-84-142). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
So, R. J. (2010). Coolie democracy: U.S.-China political and literary exchange, 1925-1955 (Doctoral dissertation). Columbia University, New York, NY.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara, S. (2017, September 20). You Can Just Put That Cookie Cutter Away. New York Times, p. RE8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNETNOMICS: Economic Research and Electronic Networking
ISSN (print)1385-9587
ISSN (online)1573-7071
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Information Systems
Economics and Econometrics

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