How to format your references using the NETNOMICS: Economic Research and Electronic Networking citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for NETNOMICS: Economic Research and Electronic Networking. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Oreskes, N. (2004). Beyond the ivory tower. The scientific consensus on climate change. Science (New York, N.Y.), 306(5702), 1686.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yan, N., & Chen, X. (2015). Sustainability: Don’t waste seafood waste. Nature, 524(7564), 155–157.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cwiok, S., Heenen, P.-H., & Nazarewicz, W. (2005). Shape coexistence and triaxiality in the superheavy nuclei. Nature, 433(7027), 705–709.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Syken, J., Grandpre, T., Kanold, P. O., & Shatz, C. J. (2006). PirB restricts ocular-dominance plasticity in visual cortex. Science (New York, N.Y.), 313(5794), 1795–1800.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Archer, R. D. (2002). Inorganic and Organometallic Polymers. New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Nawrat, A., & Kuś, Z. (Eds.). (2013). Vision Based Systemsfor UAV Applications (Vol. 481). Heidelberg: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Gardbaum, S. (2016). Decoupling Judicial Review from Judicial Supremacy. In T. Bustamante & B. Gonçalves Fernandes (Eds.), Democratizing Constitutional Law: Perspectives on Legal Theory and the Legitimacy of Constitutionalism (pp. 93–118). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for NETNOMICS: Economic Research and Electronic Networking.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, June 23). Couples Who Share Housework Equally Have More Sex, Claims Study. IFLScience. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1970). Selected Contracting and Consulting Activities of the Office of Education (No. B-164031(1)). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sundell, M. (2009). From fine art to fashion: Man Ray’s ambivalent avant-garde (Doctoral dissertation). Columbia University, New York, NY.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B. (2016, September 12). An Intergalactic Odyssey via Puppets, Puns and Knock-Knock Jokes. New York Times, p. C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNETNOMICS: Economic Research and Electronic Networking
ISSN (print)1385-9587
ISSN (online)1573-7071
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Information Systems
Economics and Econometrics

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