How to format your references using the Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
C.L. Erickson, An artificial landscape-scale fishery in the Bolivian Amazon, Nature. 408 (2000) 190–193.
A journal article with 2 authors
B.R. Jasny, L.M. Zahn, Genome-sequencing anniversary. A celebration of the genome, part I, Science. 331 (2011) 546.
A journal article with 3 authors
W. Lutz, R. Muttarak, E. Striessnig, Environment and development. Universal education is key to enhanced climate adaptation, Science. 346 (2014) 1061–1062.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
L.J. Mellander, M.E. Kurczy, N. Najafinobar, J. Dunevall, A.G. Ewing, A.-S. Cans, Two modes of exocytosis in an artificial cell, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 3847.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
B. Reason, L. Løvlie, M. Brand Flu, Service Design for Business, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ, 2015.
An edited book
B. Mertsching, M. Hund, Z. Aziz, eds., KI 2009: Advances in Artificial Intelligence: 32nd Annual German Conference on AI, Paderborn, Germany, September 15-18, 2009. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
H.L.A. van der Spek, C.W.M. Holm, H.A.G. Wijshoff, A Compilation Framework for the Automatic Restructuring of Pointer-Linked Data Structures, in: M.W. Berry, K.A. Gallivan, E. Gallopoulos, A. Grama, B. Philippe, Y. Saad, F. Saied (Eds.), High-Performance Scientific Computing: Algorithms and Applications, Springer, London, 2012: pp. 97–122.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Top 10 New Species of 2014, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Aviation Security: TSA Has Taken Steps to Improve Vetting of Airport Workers, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2015.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J.F. Rhode, Interaction equivalency in self-paced online learning environments: An exploration of learner preferences, Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Saslow, Citing Taxes, Some Seek Fire District’s Demise, New York Times. (2009) LI5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
AbbreviationJ. Trace Elem. Med. Biol.
ISSN (print)0946-672X
Molecular Medicine
Inorganic Chemistry

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