How to format your references using the Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
B.J. Hoskins, Atmospheric science. Climate change at cruising altitude?, Science. 301 (2003) 469–470.
A journal article with 2 authors
X. Wang, J. Chory, Brassinosteroids regulate dissociation of BKI1, a negative regulator of BRI1 signaling, from the plasma membrane, Science. 313 (2006) 1118–1122.
A journal article with 3 authors
M. Constância, G. Kelsey, W. Reik, Resourceful imprinting, Nature. 432 (2004) 53–57.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
P. Wild, H. Farhan, D.G. McEwan, S. Wagner, V.V. Rogov, N.R. Brady, B. Richter, J. Korac, O. Waidmann, C. Choudhary, V. Dötsch, D. Bumann, I. Dikic, Phosphorylation of the autophagy receptor optineurin restricts Salmonella growth, Science. 333 (2011) 228–233.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
T. Alrifai, Islamic Finance and the New Financial System, John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd, Singapore, 2015.
An edited book
G. Zhelezov, ed., Sustainable Development in Mountain Regions: Southeastern Europe, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
K. Ogawa, E. Sterken, I. Tokutsu, Multiple Bank Relationships and the Main Bank System: Evidence from a Matched Sample of Japanese Small Firms and Main Banks, in: G. Calcagnini, E. Saltari (Eds.), The Economics of Imperfect Markets: The Effects of Market Imperfections on Economic Decision-Making, Physica-Verlag HD, Heidelberg, 2009: pp. 73–90.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology.

Blog post
T. Hale, Why You Should Always Order The Bigger Pizza, According To Mathematics, IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Aviation Competition: Issues Related to the Proposed United Airlines-US Airways Merger, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
P. Buzinski, Exploring job satisfaction of long-term virtual employees, Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Crow, Seeking to Preserve the Site Where a Famed Ancestor Traded, New York Times. (2003) 148.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
AbbreviationJ. Trace Elem. Med. Biol.
ISSN (print)0946-672X
Molecular Medicine
Inorganic Chemistry

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