How to format your references using the Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Z.-X. Luo, Journal club. A palaeontologist ponders how genes and fossils can illuminate mammalian evolution, Nature. 465 (2010) 669.
A journal article with 2 authors
L.A. Sazanov, P. Hinchliffe, Structure of the hydrophilic domain of respiratory complex I from Thermus thermophilus, Science. 311 (2006) 1430–1436.
A journal article with 3 authors
G. Ghoshal, L. Chi, A.-L. Barabási, Uncovering the role of elementary processes in network evolution, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2920.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S.A. Crooker, D.G. Rickel, A.V. Balatsky, D.L. Smith, Spectroscopy of spontaneous spin noise as a probe of spin dynamics and magnetic resonance, Nature. 431 (2004) 49–52.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
P. Smith, Structural Design of Buildings, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2016.
An edited book
P. Casanovas, U. Pagallo, G. Sartor, G. Ajani, eds., AI Approaches to the Complexity of Legal Systems. Complex Systems, the Semantic Web, Ontologies, Argumentation, and Dialogue: International Workshops AICOL-I/IVR-XXIV Beijing, China, September19, 2009 and AICOL-II/JURIX 2009, Rotterdam,The Netherlands, December 16, 2009 Revised Selected Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
M. Montero, Methods for Liberation: Critical Consciousness in Action, in: C.C. Sonn, M. Montero (Eds.), Psychology of Liberation: Theory and Applications, Springer, New York, NY, 2009: pp. 73–91.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology.

Blog post
J. Fang, Birds Take Turns at the Head of Their Flying V, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Release of Carson City Silver Dollar Bidders List, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1979.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
L.-A.T. Dao, Comparison of peripherally inserted intravenous catheter complication prevalence: Before and after changing a 96-hour routine replacement standard, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L.W. Foderaro, R. Rojas, Husband Charged With Murder in Fatal Stabbing of Wife in a Placid Suburb, New York Times. (2016) A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
AbbreviationJ. Trace Elem. Med. Biol.
ISSN (print)0946-672X
Molecular Medicine
Inorganic Chemistry

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