How to format your references using the Inflammatory Bowel Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Price C. Evidence for a link between global lightning activity and upper tropospheric water vapour. Nature. 2000;406:290–293.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tran AP, Silver J. Neuroscience. Systemically treating spinal cord injury. Science. 2015;348:285–286.
A journal article with 3 authors
Willbold M, Elliott T, Moorbath S. The tungsten isotopic composition of the Earth’s mantle before the terminal bombardment. Nature. 2011;477:195–198.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chakraborty S, Ji H, Chen J, et al. Vector modifications to eliminate transposase expression following piggyBac-mediated transgenesis. Sci. Rep. 2014;4:7403.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Young S, Bramham J. Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for ADHD in Adolescents and Adults. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2012.
An edited book
O’Grady G, Yew EHJ, Goh KPL, et al. eds. One-Day, One-Problem: An Approach to Problem-based Learning. Singapore: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Buesching CD, Tinnesand HV, Sin Y, et al. Coding of Group Odor in the Subcaudal Gland Secretion of the European Badger Meles meles: Chemical Composition and Pouch Microbiota. In: Schulte BA, Goodwin TE, Ferkin MH, eds. Chemical Signals in Vertebrates 13. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016:45–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. First Images Released From Survey Of 100 Million Galaxies And Stars. IFLScience. 2017. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Transit Programs: Federal Transit Administration Has Opportunities to Improve Performance Accountability. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2010.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rivas VE. Art appreciation program for homeless children: A grant proposal project. 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin J. That Padres Pitcher, She’s Got a Mean Screwball. New York Times. 2016:AR118.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleInflammatory Bowel Diseases
AbbreviationInflamm. Bowel Dis.
ISSN (print)1078-0998
ISSN (online)1536-4844
Immunology and Allergy

Other styles