How to format your references using the Nephron citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nephron. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Voorhees PW: Materials science. Step dances on silicon. Science 2006;313:1247–1249.
A journal article with 2 authors
Geschwind DH, Flint J: Genetics and genomics of psychiatric disease. Science 2015;349:1489–1494.
A journal article with 3 authors
Van Valkenburgh B, Wang X, Damuth J: Cope’s rule, hypercarnivory, and extinction in North American canids. Science 2004;306:101–104.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ormö J, Sturkell E, Alwmark C, Melosh J: First known terrestrial impact of a binary asteroid from a main belt breakup event. Sci Rep 2014;4:6724.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bachmann H, Steinle A, Hahn V: Bauen mit Betonfertigteilen im Hochbau. Weinheim, Germany, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2010.
An edited book
Lowry SF, Ciocca RG, Rettie CS, Vodarsik M (eds): Learning Surgery: The Surgery Clerkship Manual. New York, NY, Springer, 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Chumningan S, Pornputtapong N, Laoteng K, Cheevadhanarak S, Thammarongtham C: 3D Structure Modeling of a Transmembrane Protein, Fatty Acid Elongase; in Chan JH, Ong Y-S, Cho S-B (eds): Computational Systems-Biology and Bioinformatics: First International Conference, CSBio 2010, Bangkok, Thailand, November 3-5, 2010. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2010, pp 36–45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nephron.

Blog post
Davis J: 7 Species Of Bees Granted Endangered Species Protection For The First Time Ever. IFLScience 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Drug Control: Status of Plan to Use Federal Research and Development Facilities. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Currano LJ: Latching microelectromechanical shock sensor systems: Design, modeling, and experiments 2010;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K: You Let Your Hair Down, and This Barkeep Cuts It. New York Times 2001;144.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNephron
ISSN (print)1660-8151
ISSN (online)2235-3186

Other styles