How to format your references using the Nephron citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nephron. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gupta S. Contingency management: Why it pays to quit. Nature. 2015 Jun;522(7557):S57-9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Purvis A, Hector A. Getting the measure of biodiversity. Nature. 2000 May;405(6783):212–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Takayanagi M, Kurisaki I, Nagaoka M. Non-site-specific allosteric effect of oxygen on human hemoglobin under high oxygen partial pressure. Sci Rep. 2014 Apr;4:4601.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Sibert J, Hampton J, Kleiber P, Maunder M. Biomass, size, and trophic status of top predators in the Pacific Ocean. Science. 2006 Dec;314(5806):1773–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Berk J. Cost Reduction and Optimization for Manufacturing and Industrial Companies. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Feichtinger HG. Pseudo-Differential Operators: Quantization and Signals. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Bourgain J. An Improved Estimate in the Restricted Isometry Problem. In: Klartag B, Milman E, editors. Geometric Aspects of Functional Analysis: Israel Seminar (GAFA) 2011-2013. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014; pp 65–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nephron.

Blog post
Andrew E. New Modeling Technique Predicts Sickle Cell Behavior [Internet]. IFLScience. 2015 Jan [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. USDA Proposal for Handling Conversions in ADPE Procurements. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Frias-Martinez V. Behavior-based admission and access control for network security. 2008

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. Justices Bar Death Penalty For the Rape of a Child. New York Times. 2008 Jun;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNephron
ISSN (print)1660-8151
ISSN (online)2235-3186

Other styles