How to format your references using the EPJ Data Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for EPJ Data Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nordhaus W (2007) Economics. Critical assumptions in the Stern Review on climate change. Science 317:201–202
A journal article with 2 authors
Krumholz MR, McKee CF (2008) A minimum column density of 1 g cm(-2) for massive star formation. Nature 451:1082–1084
A journal article with 3 authors
Bick AG, Calvo SE, Mootha VK (2012) Evolutionary diversity of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter. Science 336:886
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Graves AR, Curran PK, Smith CL, Mindell JA (2008) The Cl-/H+ antiporter ClC-7 is the primary chloride permeation pathway in lysosomes. Nature 453:788–792

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kenny T (2014) The Nuts and Bolts of Implantable Device Therapy Pacemakers. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Ventura HO (2016) Pharmacologic Trends of Heart Failure. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Dani S (2009) Predicting and Managing Supply Chain Risks. In: Zsidisin GA, Ritchie B (eds) Supply Chain Risk: A Handbook of Assessment, Management, and Performance. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp 53–66

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for EPJ Data Science.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Researchers Find A Way To Make Jet Fuel Components From Fungus. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1992) NASA Procurement: Approach to Sharing Risk Under Certain Research and Development Contracts Is Starting to Change. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
De la Rosa-Carrillo EL (2015) On the language of Internet Memes. Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
LISA W. FODERARO; Reporting for this article was contributed by Ford Fessenden, as well as by Kathleen McGrory in Westchester, Akhtar F, et al (2006) That Sound You Hear? The Market Coming Down to Earth. New York Times 14CN5

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEPJ Data Science
AbbreviationEPJ Data Sci.
ISSN (online)2193-1127

Other styles