How to format your references using the EPJ Data Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for EPJ Data Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mahowald N (2011) Aerosol indirect effect on biogeochemical cycles and climate. Science 334:794–796
A journal article with 2 authors
Sekiya S, Suzuki A (2011) Direct conversion of mouse fibroblasts to hepatocyte-like cells by defined factors. Nature 475:390–393
A journal article with 3 authors
Shekhawat G, Tark S-H, Dravid VP (2006) MOSFET-Embedded microcantilevers for measuring deflection in biomolecular sensors. Science 311:1592–1595
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Srivastava S, Santos A, Critchley K, et al (2010) Light-controlled self-assembly of semiconductor nanoparticles into twisted ribbons. Science 327:1355–1359

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mason RP (2013) Trace Metals in Aquatic Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Kocaoğlu M, Tsuchiya H, Eralp L (2015) Advanced Techniques in Limb Reconstruction Surgery. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Maggino F (2006) Perception and Evaluation of the Quality of Life in Florence, Italy. In: Sirgy MJ, Rahtz D, Swain D (eds) Community Quality-of-Life Indicators: Best Cases II. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 75–125

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for EPJ Data Science.

Blog post
Fang J (2015) Plant Disguises Seeds As Dung To Trick Beetles Into Dispersing Them. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1973) Use of Appropriated Funds as Impact Aid to Educational Agencies. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stevens JW (2008) Perception of counselor ethical behavior: A quantitative look at dual relationships in Maine. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt) SK (2002) World Briefing | Europe: Latvia: Language Law Dropped. New York Times A12

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEPJ Data Science
AbbreviationEPJ Data Sci.
ISSN (online)2193-1127

Other styles