How to format your references using the EPJ Data Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for EPJ Data Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Singer T (2012) Nutrition: The vitamin D complex. Nature 489:S10-1
A journal article with 2 authors
Linhardt RJ, Toida T (2002) Tech.Sight. Capillary electrophoresis. Ultra-high resolution separation comes of age. Science 298:1441–1442
A journal article with 3 authors
Matsumoto M, Saito S, Ohmine I (2002) Molecular dynamics simulation of the ice nucleation and growth process leading to water freezing. Nature 416:409–413
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Alcaraz Iranzo D, Nanot S, Dias EJC, et al (2018) Probing the ultimate plasmon confinement limits with a van der Waals heterostructure. Science 360:291–295

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fryirs KA, Brierley GJ (2012) Geomorphic Analysis of River Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Begun V, Jenkovszky LL, Polański A (2009) Progress in HighEnergy Physics and Nuclear Safety. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Miron A-D, Gensel J, Villanova-Oliver M (2008) Semantic Analysis for the Geospatial Web – Application to OWL-DL Ontologies. In: Bertolotto M, Ray C, Li X (eds) Web and Wireless Geographical Information Systems: 8th International Symposium, W2GIS 2008, Shanghai, China, December 11-12, 2008. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 37–49

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for EPJ Data Science.

Blog post
Fang J (2015) Why Are Humans So Afraid Of Spiders? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2009) Higher Education: Factors Lenders Consider in Making Lending Decisions for Private Education Loans. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Slaughter RA (2017) Tradition and Progress: California Fire Technology Directors Beliefs and Values. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Delreal JA, Bromwich JE (2017) Suspect, an Unmoored Retiree, Kept Quiet and Gambled Often. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEPJ Data Science
AbbreviationEPJ Data Sci.
ISSN (online)2193-1127

Other styles