How to format your references using the Geomorphology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geomorphology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gupta, S., 2015. Surgery: Diverse interventions. Nature 526, S6-7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lucić, V., Baumeister, W., 2005. Neuroscience. Monte Carlo places strong odds on ectopic release. Science 309, 387–388.
A journal article with 3 authors
Petrides, M., Cadoret, G., Mackey, S., 2005. Orofacial somatomotor responses in the macaque monkey homologue of Broca’s area. Nature 435, 1235–1238.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lau, N.C., Seto, A.G., Kim, J., Kuramochi-Miyagawa, S., Nakano, T., Bartel, D.P., Kingston, R.E., 2006. Characterization of the piRNA complex from rat testes. Science 313, 363–367.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pederson, L.D., 2015. Dialectical Behavior Therapy. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Miesenberger, K., Klaus, J., Zagler, W., Karshmer, A. (Eds.), 2010. Computers Helping People with Special Needs: 12th International Conference, ICCHP 2010, Vienna, Austria, July 14-16, 2010. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Orłowska, E., Golińska-Pilarek, J., 2011. Dual Tableaux for Fork Algebras, in: Golińska Pilarek, J. (Ed.), Dual Tableaux: Foundations, Methodology, Case Studies, Trends in Logic. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 105–120.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geomorphology.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2016. Multi-Cellular Life May Have Begun One Billion Years Earlier Than We Thought [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1971. Charges for Launch Support Services Furnished by the Air Force to the Communications Satellite Corporation (Comsat) (No. B-168707). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Backfish, M., 2013. Electron Cloud in Steel Beam Pipe vs Titanium Nitride Coated and Amorphous Carbon Coated Beam Pipes in Fermilab’s Main Injector (Doctoral dissertation). Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M., 2010. The Game and the Shoe. New York Times E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gupta, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Gupta, 2015; Lucić and Baumeister, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lucić and Baumeister, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Lau et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeomorphology
AbbreviationGeomorphology (Amst.)
ISSN (print)0169-555X
ScopeEarth-Surface Processes

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