How to format your references using the Geomorphology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geomorphology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jayaraman, K.S., 2006. Break with tradition. Nature 442, 342–343.
A journal article with 2 authors
Misra, S., Froelich, P.N., 2012. Lithium isotope history of Cenozoic seawater: changes in silicate weathering and reverse weathering. Science 335, 818–823.
A journal article with 3 authors
Marangon, D.G., Vallone, G., Villoresi, P., 2014. Random bits, true and unbiased, from atmospheric turbulence. Sci. Rep. 4, 5490.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ploss, A., Evans, M.J., Gaysinskaya, V.A., Panis, M., You, H., de Jong, Y.P., Rice, C.M., 2009. Human occludin is a hepatitis C virus entry factor required for infection of mouse cells. Nature 457, 882–886.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chappell, D., 2008. The JCT Design and Build Contract 2005. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Streitz, N., Kameas, A., Mavrommati, I. (Eds.), 2007. The Disappearing Computer: Interaction Design, System Infrastructures and Applications for Smart Environments, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Ashy, M., Planje, E., Al-Obaidi, A.K., Smith, L., Yassour-Boroschowitz, D., Desivilya, H.S., Smith, K., Jeffrey, L., Tastle, W., Turan, F., Yalcinkaya, A., Youssef, R., 2013. Definitions of War, Torture, and Terrorism in the Middle East, in: Malley-Morrison, K., McCarthy, S., Hines, D. (Eds.), International Handbook of War, Torture, and Terrorism. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 63–79.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geomorphology.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Climate Change And Hurricane Katrina: What Have We Learned? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2006. Internet Infrastructure: Challenges in Developing a Public/Private Recovery Plan (No. GAO-06-1100T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sutton, D.L., 2010. Preparing instrumental teachers: A resource for volunteer, lay music teachers in Salvation Army churches (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel, B., 2017. Three Goals Early in Third Period Help Penguins Tighten Their Grip. New York Times B15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Jayaraman, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Jayaraman, 2006; Misra and Froelich, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Misra and Froelich, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Ploss et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeomorphology
AbbreviationGeomorphology (Amst.)
ISSN (print)0169-555X
ScopeEarth-Surface Processes

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