How to format your references using the Geomorphology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geomorphology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McSwain, M.V., 2014. Astrophysics: Black hole found orbiting a fast rotator. Nature 505, 296–297.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rohrbach, A., Schmidt, M.W., 2011. Redox freezing and melting in the Earth’s deep mantle resulting from carbon-iron redox coupling. Nature 472, 209–212.
A journal article with 3 authors
Herrmann, B., Thöni, C., Gächter, S., 2008. Antisocial punishment across societies. Science 319, 1362–1367.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Shaw, D.E., Maragakis, P., Lindorff-Larsen, K., Piana, S., Dror, R.O., Eastwood, M.P., Bank, J.A., Jumper, J.M., Salmon, J.K., Shan, Y., Wriggers, W., 2010. Atomic-level characterization of the structural dynamics of proteins. Science 330, 341–346.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Burton, E., 2016. Business and Entrepreneurship in Saudi Arabia. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Pancel, L., Köhl, M. (Eds.), 2016. Tropical Forestry Handbook, 2nd ed. 2016. ed. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Charpiat, G., Hofmann, M., Schölkopf, B., 2015. Kernel Methods in Medical Imaging, in: Paragios, N., Duncan, J., Ayache, N. (Eds.), Handbook of Biomedical Imaging: Methodologies and Clinical Research. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp. 63–81.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geomorphology.

Blog post
Hamilton, K., 2016. 8 Space Reasons To Look Up In 2017 [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2004. Financial Market Preparedness: Improvements Made, but More Action Needed to Prepare for Wide-Scale Disasters (No. GAO-04-984). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Brandon, G.L., 2017. Mendelssohn’s Public Statement of Faith: “Lobgesang” as Christian Witness (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, C., 2011. Austin Filmmaker Scores Sight Unseen at Sundance. New York Times A27B.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (McSwain, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (McSwain, 2014; Rohrbach and Schmidt, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rohrbach and Schmidt, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Shaw et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeomorphology
AbbreviationGeomorphology (Amst.)
ISSN (print)0169-555X
ScopeEarth-Surface Processes

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