How to format your references using the Geomorphology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geomorphology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nittler, L.R., 2004. Astronomy. Nuclear fossils in stardust. Science 303, 636–637.
A journal article with 2 authors
Peacock, E., Garshelis, D.L., 2006. Comment on “On the regulation of populations of mammals, birds, fish, and insects” IV. Science 313, 45; author reply 45.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen, X., Parker, D., Singh, D.J., 2013. Importance of non-parabolic band effects in the thermoelectric properties of semiconductors. Sci. Rep. 3, 3168.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Dekker, J., Belmont, A.S., Guttman, M., Leshyk, V.O., Lis, J.T., Lomvardas, S., Mirny, L.A., O’Shea, C.C., Park, P.J., Ren, B., Politz, J.C.R., Shendure, J., Zhong, S., 4D Nucleome Network, 2017. Corrigendum: The 4D nucleome project. Nature 552, 278.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Clark, M., 2006. Understanding Diabetes. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
McMillan, D.B. (Ed.), 2007. Fish Histology: Female Reproductive Systems. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Massari, M., Motta, C., 2007. Women in the Sacra Corona Unita, in: Fiandaca, G. (Ed.), Women and the Mafia, STUDIES IN ORGANIZED CRIME. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 53–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geomorphology.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. This Cyclops Shark Was Found Three Years Ago Off The Coast Of Mexico [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1999. Telecommunications: State and Federal Actions to Curb Slamming and Cramming (No. RCED-99-193). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Henning, J.N., 2014. Top ten effective community college board trustees self-perceived leadership attributes (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron, J., 2017. Where’s the Art? at a Hamptons Center, Look Behind the Wall. New York Times A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nittler, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Nittler, 2004; Peacock and Garshelis, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Peacock and Garshelis, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Dekker et al., 2017)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeomorphology
AbbreviationGeomorphology (Amst.)
ISSN (print)0169-555X
ScopeEarth-Surface Processes

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