How to format your references using the Nephrology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nephrology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Griffith LC. Neuroscience: What females really want. Nature. 2014 Aug 14;512(7513):138–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Franklin CE, Axelsson M. An actively controlled heart valve. Nature. 2000 Aug 24;406(6798):847–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Reinisch KM, Nibert ML, Harrison SC. Structure of the reovirus core at 3.6 A resolution. Nature. 2000 Apr 27;404(6781):960–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Lu SF, Jin GZ, Uzzi B, Jones B. The retraction penalty: evidence from the Web of Science. Sci Rep. 2013 Nov 6;3:3146.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lemberger P, Morel M. Managing Complexity of Information Systems. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Jurga S, Erdmann (Deceased) VA, Barciszewski J, editors. Modified Nucleic Acids in Biology and Medicine. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. XIV, 453 p. 122 illus., 46 illus. in color. (RNA Technologies).
A chapter in an edited book
Brichni M, Dupuy-Chessa S, Gzara L, Jeannet C. Manufacturing Reporting Knowledge Representation: A Case Study at STMicroelectronics. In: Grabot B, Vallespir B, Gomes S, Bouras A, Kiritsis D, editors. Advances in Production Management Systems Innovative and Knowledge-Based Production Management in a Global-Local World: IFIP WG 57 International Conference, APMS 2014, Ajaccio, France, September 20-24, 2014, Proceedings, Part I. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014. p. 34–41. (IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nephrology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Mouse vs. Scorpion- Who Do You Think Wins? IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. U.S. Involvement at Major International Air Shows Principally Depends on Agencies’ Missions and Aerospace Companies’ Resources. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2007 Sep. Report No.: GAO-07-1165R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ly L. Performance Appraisal in a Family Business [Doctoral dissertation]. [Malibu, CA]: Pepperdine University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M. Gore Tells the Wary: Clinton Isn’t a Worry. New York Times. 1992 Jul 14;A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleNephrology
AbbreviationNephrology (Carlton)
ISSN (print)1320-5358
ISSN (online)1440-1797
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles