How to format your references using the Nephrology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nephrology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Carrero-Martínez FA. Education. Rethink summer student research. Science. 2011 Oct 21;334(6054):313.
A journal article with 2 authors
Podgornaia AI, Laub MT. Protein evolution. Pervasive degeneracy and epistasis in a protein-protein interface. Science. 2015 Feb 6;347(6222):673–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pollack SE, Dries D, Hulet RG. Universality in three- and four-body bound states of ultracold atoms. Science. 2009 Dec 18;326(5960):1683–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
d’Adda di Fagagna F, Reaper PM, Clay-Farrace L, Fiegler H, Carr P, Von Zglinicki T, et al. A DNA damage checkpoint response in telomere-initiated senescence. Nature. 2003 Nov 13;426(6963):194–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Remy JG, Letamendia C. LTE Standards. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Assalia A, Gagner M, Schein M, editors. Controversies in Laparoscopic Surgery. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006. XLIV, 444 p.
A chapter in an edited book
Rula A, Maurino A, Batini C. Data Quality Issues in Linked Open Data. In: Scannapieco M, editor. Data and Information Quality: Dimensions, Principles and Techniques. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 87–112. (Data-Centric Systems and Applications).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nephrology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Why Meat Is Important In The Global Battle Against Food Insecurity. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Need for Better Management of the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1982 May. Report No.: AFMD-82-74.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Momcheva IG. Environments of strong gravitational lenses [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tucson, AZ]: University of Arizona; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Yee V. Closing on Short Notice, Brooklyn Assisted-Living Home Angers Families. New York Times. 2014 Mar 25;A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleNephrology
AbbreviationNephrology (Carlton)
ISSN (print)1320-5358
ISSN (online)1440-1797
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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