How to format your references using the Nephrology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nephrology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schroeder T. Imaging stem-cell-driven regeneration in mammals. Nature. 2008 May 15;453(7193):345–51.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hsieh-Wilson LC, Griffin ME. Chemistry. Improving biologic drugs via total chemical synthesis. Science. 2013 Dec 13;342(6164):1332–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yoo AS, Bais C, Greenwald I. Crosstalk between the EGFR and LIN-12/Notch pathways in C. elegans vulval development. Science. 2004 Jan 30;303(5658):663–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ahn TK, Avenson TJ, Ballottari M, Cheng Y-C, Niyogi KK, Bassi R, et al. Architecture of a charge-transfer state regulating light harvesting in a plant antenna protein. Science. 2008 May 9;320(5877):794–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Millon T, Grossman S. Moderating Severe Personality Disorders. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2007.
An edited book
Lee GG, Song D, Lin C-Y, Aizawa A, Kuriyama K, Yoshioka M, et al., editors. Information Retrieval Technology: 5th Asia Information Retrieval Symposium, AIRS 2009, Sapporo, Japan, October 21-23, 2009. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009. XIII, 446 p. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; vol. 5839).
A chapter in an edited book
Bartnik R, Buryn Z. Algorithm for the Calculation of an Optimum Structure of Heat Exchangers for the Modernization of a 370 MW Power Unit to Combined Heat and Power Cycle. In: Buryn Z, editor. Conversion of Coal-Fired Power Plants to Cogeneration and Combined-Cycle: Thermal and Economic Effectiveness. London: Springer; 2011. p. 61–7.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nephrology.

Blog post
Hale T. Lost Section Of The Great Wall Of China Resurfaces After Drought [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Stafford Student Loans: Millions of Dollars in Loans Awarded to Ineligible Borrowers. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990 Dec. Report No.: IMTEC-91-7.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Uzoff PP. Virtual school teacher’s science efficacy beliefs: The effects of community of practice on science-teaching efficacy beliefs [Doctoral dissertation]. [Malibu, CA]: Pepperdine University; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Smith M. A Kansas Town Rallies for a Modest Lifeline: A Local Grocery Store. New York Times. 2014 Dec 29;A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleNephrology
AbbreviationNephrology (Carlton)
ISSN (print)1320-5358
ISSN (online)1440-1797
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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