How to format your references using the Nephrology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nephrology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Belzig W. QUANTUM SIMULATION. Josephson contacts of neutral strongly interacting fermions. Science. 2015 Dec 18;350(6267):1470.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lorincz A, Nusser Z. Molecular identity of dendritic voltage-gated sodium channels. Science. 2010 May 14;328(5980):906–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Faehnle CR, Walleshauser J, Joshua-Tor L. Mechanism of Dis3l2 substrate recognition in the Lin28-let-7 pathway. Nature. 2014 Oct 9;514(7521):252–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Liu C, Yang XV, Wu J, Kuei C, Mani NS, Zhang L, et al. Oxysterols direct B-cell migration through EBI2. Nature. 2011 Jul 27;475(7357):519–23.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mory M. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineering. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Kokhanovsky AA, Leeuw G de, editors. Satellite Aerosol Remote Sensing over Land. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009. XVII, 388 p. (Springer Praxis Books).
A chapter in an edited book
Marescaux J, Mutter D. The World Virtual University and the Internet: In: Satava RM, Gaspari A, Lorenzo ND, editors. Emerging Technologies in Surgery. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007. p. 19–25.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nephrology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Viruses Are Highly Evolved Infectious Agents – Perfect To Go After Cancer. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. GAO’s Views on SDIO’s Phase I Cost Estimate. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989 Mar. Report No.: T-NSIAD-89-18.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Herman GS. Terahertz local oscillator via difference frequency generation in iii-v semiconductors using frequency stabilized lasers [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tucson, AZ]: University of Arizona; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. Court Backs Police Officers In Chase That Hurt Driver. New York Times. 2007 May 1;A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleNephrology
AbbreviationNephrology (Carlton)
ISSN (print)1320-5358
ISSN (online)1440-1797
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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