How to format your references using the Communication Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Communication Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Theise, N. D. (2005). Now you see it, now you don’t. Nature, 435(7046), 1165.
A journal article with 2 authors
Poliakoff, M., & Anastas, P. (2001). A principled stance. Nature, 413(6853), 257.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bezryadin, A., Lau, C. N., & Tinkham, M. (2000). Quantum suppression of superconductivity in ultrathin nanowires. Nature, 404(6781), 971–974.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Wisotzki, L., Bacon, R., Brinchmann, J., Cantalupo, S., Richter, P., Schaye, J., Schmidt, K. B., Urrutia, T., Weilbacher, P. M., Akhlaghi, M., Bouché, N., Contini, T., Guiderdoni, B., Herenz, E. C., Inami, H., Kerutt, J., Leclercq, F., Marino, R. A., Maseda, M., … Wendt, M. (2018). Nearly all the sky is covered by Lyman-α emission around high-redshift galaxies. Nature, 562(7726), 229–232.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Phillips, J. J., Brantley, W., & Phillips, P. P. (2011). Project Management ROI. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Heintze, H.-J., & Zwitter, A. (Eds.). (2011). International Law and Humanitarian Assistance: A Crosscut Through Legal Issues Pertaining to Humanitarianism. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Schuck, S. (2011). Resisting Complacency: My Teaching Through an Outsider’s Eyes. In S. Schuck & P. Pereira (Eds.), What Counts in Teaching Mathematics: Adding Value to Self and Content (pp. 61–73). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Communication Education.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, May 7). New Tyrannosaur Nicknamed “Pinocchio rex” Discovered In China. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1999). Railroad Regulation: Current Issues Associated With the Rate Relief Process (RCED-99-46). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
DeHart, W. P. (2008). The leader liminal sphere: A phenomenological inquiry [Doctoral dissertation]. Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara, S. (2015, January 11). Faces of a Small Southern Town. New York Times, WE9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Theise, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Poliakoff & Anastas, 2001; Theise, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Poliakoff & Anastas, 2001)
  • Three authors: (Bezryadin et al., 2000)
  • 6 or more authors: (Wisotzki et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleCommunication Education
AbbreviationCommun. Educ.
ISSN (print)0363-4523
ISSN (online)1479-5795
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics

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