How to format your references using the Communication Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Communication Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gewin, V. (2005). Industry lured by the gains of going green. Nature, 436(7048), 173.
A journal article with 2 authors
Heller, R. C., & Marians, K. J. (2006). Replication fork reactivation downstream of a blocked nascent leading strand. Nature, 439(7076), 557–562.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lestas, I., Vinnicombe, G., & Paulsson, J. (2010). Fundamental limits on the suppression of molecular fluctuations. Nature, 467(7312), 174–178.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Tsukazaki, A., Ohtomo, A., Kita, T., Ohno, Y., Ohno, H., & Kawasaki, M. (2007). Quantum Hall effect in polar oxide heterostructures. Science (New York, N.Y.), 315(5817), 1388–1391.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Elliott, C. H., & Smith, L. L. (2010). Overcoming Anxiety for Dummies®. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Publishing, Inc.
An edited book
Verster, J. C., Pandi-Perumal, S. R., Ramaekers, J. G., & Gier, J. J. de (Eds.). (2009). Drugs, Driving and Traffic Safety. Basel: Birkhäuser.
A chapter in an edited book
Qiang, Y., Zhao, J.-J., & Chen, J.-J. (2010). Comparative Study of Workload Control Methods for Autonomic Database System. In Q. Luo (Ed.), Advances in Wireless Networks and Information Systems (pp. 35–42). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Communication Education.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, October 31). Dark Energy May Be Consuming Dark Matter. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2007). DOD Schools: Additional Reporting Could Improve Accountability for Academic Achievement of Students with Dyslexia (No. GAO-08-70). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Arnold, D. M. (2017). An Examination of Job Satisfaction Among Full-Time Faculty in a Selected Mississippi Community College (Doctoral dissertation). Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wilson, M. (2017, August 14). Sentencing Will Provide Coda for Television Producer’s Real Crime Drama. New York Times, p. A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gewin, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Gewin, 2005; Heller & Marians, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Heller & Marians, 2006)
  • Three authors: (Lestas, Vinnicombe, & Paulsson, 2010)
  • 6 or more authors: (Tsukazaki et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleCommunication Education
AbbreviationCommun. Educ.
ISSN (print)0363-4523
ISSN (online)1479-5795
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics

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