How to format your references using the Communication Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Communication Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Abeles, M. (2004). Neuroscience. Time is precious. Science (New York, N.Y.), 304(5670), 523–524.
A journal article with 2 authors
Butte, N. F., & Ellis, K. J. (2003). Comment on “Obesity and the environment: where do we go from here?” Science (New York, N.Y.), 301(5633), 598; author reply 598.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bailis, R., Ezzati, M., & Kammen, D. M. (2005). Mortality and greenhouse gas impacts of biomass and petroleum energy futures in Africa. Science (New York, N.Y.), 308(5718), 98–103.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Mayorga, E., Aufdenkampe, A. K., Masiello, C. A., Krusche, A. V., Hedges, J. I., Quay, P. D., Richey, J. E., & Brown, T. A. (2005). Young organic matter as a source of carbon dioxide outgassing from Amazonian rivers. Nature, 436(7050), 538–541.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Michaud, T. (2017). Innovation, Between Science and Science Fiction. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Mossakowski, T., & Kreowski, H.-J. (Eds.). (2012). Recent Trends in Algebraic Development Techniques: 20th International Workshop, WADT 2010, Etelsen, Germany, July 1-4, 2010, Revised Selected Papers (Vol. 7137). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Vashchenko, V., & Scholz, M. (2014). IC and System ESD Co-design. In M. Scholz (Ed.), System Level ESD Protection (pp. 247–309). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Communication Education.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2015, August 14). Zebra Stripes Don’t Offer Any Protection Against Predators, According To New Study. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2004). Department of Housing and Urban Development: Lack of Accountability for Computer Equipment Leaves These Assets Vulnerable to Loss or Misappropriation (GAO-04-520R). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ouellette, R. L. (2008). Referral development results of relationship tie- strength for small business goal -directed networking groups [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. (2002, November 3). A Prickly Mason-Dixon Line in the Village. New York Times, 146.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Abeles, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Abeles, 2004; Butte & Ellis, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Butte & Ellis, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Bailis et al., 2005)
  • 6 or more authors: (Mayorga et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleCommunication Education
AbbreviationCommun. Educ.
ISSN (print)0363-4523
ISSN (online)1479-5795
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics

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