How to format your references using the Imaging in Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Imaging in Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Olson P. Geophysics. The new core paradox. Science. 342(6157), 431–432 (2013).
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Houghton M, Abrignani S. Prospects for a vaccine against the hepatitis C virus. Nature. 436(7053), 961–966 (2005).
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Waelti P, Dickinson A, Schultz W. Dopamine responses comply with basic assumptions of formal learning theory. Nature. 412(6842), 43–48 (2001).
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Volkov I, Banavar JR, Hubbell SP, Maritan A. Neutral theory and relative species abundance in ecology. Nature. 424(6952), 1035–1037 (2003).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Worth SM. The Association Guide to Going Global. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
1.
Fox PF. Dairy Chemistry and Biochemistry. 2nd ed. 2015. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Catena di LM. Quaranta storie narrate con…. In: Oltre i materiali. La scienza tra le nostre dita: Quaranta storie di lavoro e formazione. Davoli I (Ed.), Springer, Milano, 31–34 (2011).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Imaging in Medicine.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. New Horizons’ Team Announces Their Next Target [Internet]. IFLScience (2015). Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/space/new-horizons-next-target/.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. NASA’s Clipperton Project. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Ku Y. Dealing with historical issues in Japan and Germany: Ruling coalitions, transnational activism, and conservative reaction. (2010).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Koblin J. Hit Show? No, but Close Enough. New York Times, B4 (2017).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleImaging in Medicine
AbbreviationImaging Med.
ISSN (print)1755-5191
ISSN (online)1755-5205
ScopeRadiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Radiological and Ultrasound Technology

Other styles