How to format your references using the Imaging in Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Imaging in Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fischer R. Developmental biology. Sex and poison in the dark. Science. 320(5882), 1430–1431 (2008).
A journal article with 2 authors
Raiborg C, Stenmark H. Cell biology. A helix for the final cut. Science. 331(6024), 1533–1534 (2011).
A journal article with 3 authors
Sasaki M, Takagi M, Okamura Y. A voltage sensor-domain protein is a voltage-gated proton channel. Science. 312(5773), 589–592 (2006).
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Yoon A, Peng G, Brandenburger Y, et al. Impaired control of IRES-mediated translation in X-linked dyskeratosis congenita. Science. 312(5775), 902–906 (2006).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Martindale W. Global Food Security and Supply. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Chaudhuri J, Al-Rubeai M, editors. Bioreactors for Tissue Engineering: Principles, Design and Operation. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Isobe Y, Moller F, Nguyen HN, Roggenbach M. Safety and Line Capacity in Railways – An Approach in Timed CSP. In: Integrated Formal Methods: 9th International Conference, IFM 2012, Pisa, Italy, June 18-21, 2012. Proceedings. Derrick J, Gnesi S, Latella D, Treharne H (Eds.), Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 54–68 (2012).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Imaging in Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. How Does Household Mould Affect Your Health? [Internet]. IFLScience (2015). Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Difficulties of the Neighborhood Youth Corps In-School Program and Its Management Problems. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shurts C. Superstructure. (2010).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. Looking for Wiseguys In the Land of Checked Tablecloths. New York Times, 146 (2002).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleImaging in Medicine
AbbreviationImaging Med.
ISSN (print)1755-5191
ISSN (online)1755-5205
ScopeRadiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Radiological and Ultrasound Technology

Other styles