How to format your references using the Imaging in Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Imaging in Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Long JCS. Piecemeal cuts won’t add up to radical reductions. Nature. 478(7370), 429 (2011).
A journal article with 2 authors
Korkusinski M, Hawrylak P. Quantum strain sensor with a topological insulator HgTe quantum dot. Sci. Rep. 4, 4903 (2014).
A journal article with 3 authors
Santos MD, Dorogovtsev SN, Mendes JFF. Biased imitation in coupled evolutionary games in interdependent networks. Sci. Rep. 4, 4436 (2014).
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Mecklenbräuker I, Kalled SL, Leitges M, Mackay F, Tarakhovsky A. Regulation of B-cell survival by BAFF-dependent PKCdelta-mediated nuclear signalling. Nature. 431(7007), 456–461 (2004).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Walke B, Seidenberg R, Althoff MP. UMTS. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Riaño D, Teije AT, Miksch S, Peleg M, editors. Knowledge Representation for Health-Care. Data, Processes and Guidelines: AIME 2009 Workshop KR4HC 2009, Verona, Italy, July 19, 2009, Revised Selected and Invited Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Ghatak KP, Bhattacharya S. The DSL for III–V, Ternary and Quaternary Semiconductors Under External Photo-Excitation. In: Debye Screening Length: Effects of Nanostructured Materials. Bhattacharya S (Ed.), Springer International Publishing, Cham, 109–131 (2014).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Imaging in Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. Rats Use Their Whiskers Like Humans Use Their Fingers [Internet]. IFLScience (2014). Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Business Modernization: Disciplined Processes Needed to Better Manage NASA’s Integrated Financial Management Program. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Felsburg DF. The business of evangelism: A phenomenological study of frustration and attrition among Christian evangelists. (2008).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Reinhart MK. High-Profile Union Ends Abruptly. New York Times, ST14 (2015).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleImaging in Medicine
AbbreviationImaging Med.
ISSN (print)1755-5191
ISSN (online)1755-5205
ScopeRadiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Radiological and Ultrasound Technology

Other styles