How to format your references using the Imaging in Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Imaging in Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rogers JA. Journal club. A materials scientist comments on two methods for three-dimensional nanofabrication. Nature. 467(7311), 9 (2010).
A journal article with 2 authors
Popp MW, Maquat LE. RNA. A TRICK’n way to see the pioneer round of translation. Science. 347(6228), 1316–1317 (2015).
A journal article with 3 authors
Tucker WC, Weber T, Chapman ER. Reconstitution of Ca2+-regulated membrane fusion by synaptotagmin and SNAREs. Science. 304(5669), 435–438 (2004).
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kashlinsky A, Arendt RG, Mather J, Moseley SH. Tracing the first stars with fluctuations of the cosmic infrared background. Nature. 438(7064), 45–50 (2005).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Benslama M, Boucenna ML, Batatia H. Ad Hoc Networks Telecommunications and Game Theory. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Irwin LN. Cosmic Biology: How Life Could Evolve on Other Worlds. Praxis, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Craig RG, Kotanko P. Interactions Between Periodontal Disease and Chronic Kidney Diseases. In: A Clinician’s Guide to Systemic Effects of Periodontal Diseases. Craig RG, Kamer AR (Eds.), Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 53–65 (2016).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Imaging in Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. Orangutan Escapes Enclosure And Entertains Visitors At The Zoo [Internet]. IFLScience (2015). Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Expenditure of Federal Funds by Timberlane Regional High School District, New Hampshire. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Domina NV. Gender and culture influences on leadership perceptions. (2009).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Bilefsky D. May Still Expected to Win, but Lead Narrows After Missteps. New York Times, A10 (2017).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleImaging in Medicine
AbbreviationImaging Med.
ISSN (print)1755-5191
ISSN (online)1755-5205
ScopeRadiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Radiological and Ultrasound Technology

Other styles