How to format your references using the Nature Geoscience citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nature Geoscience. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ward, C. Regenesis. Nature 404, 708 (2000).
A journal article with 2 authors
Truffer, M. & Fahnestock, M. Climate change. Rethinking ice sheet time scales. Science 315, 1508–1510 (2007).
A journal article with 3 authors
Holland, G., Cassidy, M. & Ballentine, C. J. Meteorite Kr in Earth’s mantle suggests a late accretionary source for the atmosphere. Science 326, 1522–1525 (2009).
A journal article with 6 or more authors
Kapitaniak, M. et al. Synchronization extends the life time of the desired behavior of globally coupled systems. Sci. Rep. 4, 4391 (2014).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Baher, H. Signal Processing and Integrated Circuits. (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2012).
An edited book
Rethinking the Individualism-Holism Debate: Essays in the Philosophy of Social Science. vol. 372 (Springer International Publishing, 2014).
A chapter in an edited book
Philip, N. H., Zwack, E. E. & Brodsky, I. E. Activation and Evasion of Inflammasomes by Yersinia. in Inflammasome Signaling and Bacterial Infections (ed. Backert, S.) 69–90 (Springer International Publishing, 2016).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nature Geoscience.

Blog post
Hale, T. This ‘Orange Alligator’ Has Been Spotted In South Carolina. IFLScience (2017).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. National Security: Papers Prepared for GAO Conference on Worldwide Threats. (1992).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ton, N.-Q. A hierarchical wireless network architecture for building automation and control systems: Implementation and simulation study. (California State University, Long Beach, 2015).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Fisher, I. & Hubbard, B. Awash in Turmoil, Arab World Leaves Two-State Goal Adrift. New York Times A1 (2017).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleNature Geoscience
AbbreviationNat. Geosci.
ISSN (print)1752-0894
ISSN (online)1752-0908
ScopeGeneral Earth and Planetary Sciences

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