How to format your references using the Nature Geoscience citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nature Geoscience. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Carpenter, B. K. Chemistry. Taking the high road and getting there before you. Science 332, 1269–1270 (2011).
A journal article with 2 authors
Reddy, G. V. & Meyerowitz, E. M. Stem-cell homeostasis and growth dynamics can be uncoupled in the Arabidopsis shoot apex. Science 310, 663–667 (2005).
A journal article with 3 authors
Hurst, L. D., Feil, E. J. & Rocha, E. P. C. Protein evolution: causes of trends in amino-acid gain and loss. Nature 442, E11-2; discussion E12 (2006).
A journal article with 6 or more authors
Wen, P., Zheng, N., Li, L. & Shi, Q. Symmetrically periodic segregation in a vertically vibrated binary granular bed. Sci. Rep. 4, 6914 (2014).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Thompson, D., Hogan, J. D. & Clark, P. M. Developmental Psychology in Historical Perspective. (Wiley-Blackwell, 2012).
An edited book
A Visual Guide to Scleroderma and Approach to Treatment. (Springer, 2014).
A chapter in an edited book
Wang, S., Xu, F., Feng, L. & Xiang, X. Abnormal Uterine Development. in Atlas of Surgical Correction of Female Genital Malformation (eds. Zhu, L., Wong, F. & Lang, J.) 207–241 (Springer Netherlands, 2015).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nature Geoscience.

Blog post
Andrews, R. Hidden Layers Have Been Found In The Tomb Of Jesus Christ. IFLScience (2016). Available at: (Accessed: 30th October 2018)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Telecommunications: FCC Does Not Know if All Required Fees Are Collected. (U.S. Government Printing Office, 1999).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Odom, S. A. Electronic health records: Overcoming obstacles to improve acceptance and utilization for mental health clinicians. (Capella University, 2017).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, J. Stranger Than Reality? New York Times BR4 (2017).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleNature Geoscience
AbbreviationNat. Geosci.
ISSN (print)1752-0894
ISSN (online)1752-0908
ScopeGeneral Earth and Planetary Sciences

Other styles