How to format your references using the Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle (JCSM). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Owens B. Cell physiology: The changing colour of fat. Nature 2014;508:S52-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Kim J, Swager TM. Control of conformational and interpolymer effects in conjugated polymers. Nature 2001;411:1030–1034.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Chalasani R, Gupta A, Vasudevan S. Engineering new layered solids from exfoliated inorganics: a periodically alternating hydrotalcite-montmorillonite layered hybrid. Sci Rep 2013;3:3498.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Geffeney S, Brodie ED Jr, Ruben PC, Brodie ED 3rd. Mechanisms of adaptation in a predator-prey arms race: TTX-resistant sodium channels. Science 2002;297:1336–1339.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
De Spiegeleer J, Schoutens W, Van Hulle C. The Handbook of Hybrid Securities. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK; 2014.
An edited book
1.
Jochem E (ed.). Improving the Efficiency of R&D and the Market Diffusion of Energy Technologies. Physica-Verlag HD: Heidelberg; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Urbinati A, Brambatti M. Intracranial Bleeding. In: Capucci A, editor. Clinical Cases in Cardiology: A Guide to Learning and Practice. Springer International Publishing: Cham; 2015. pp. 35–39.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle.

Blog post
1.
Davis J. Women Twice As Likely To Die From Causes Related To Pregnancy And Childbirth In America Than In Canada. IFLScience. 2015https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/women-twice-likely-die-causes-related-pregnancy-and-childbirth-america-canada/. Accessed 30 October 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Trans-Alaska Pipeline: Actions to Improve Safety Are Under Way. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC; 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Best ML. Assistant Principals and Reform: A Socialization Paradox? 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Lee L. A Clean Desk, At Least For Starters. New York Times. 2008;F3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
AbbreviationJ. Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle
ISSN (print)2190-5991
ISSN (online)2190-6009
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Physiology (medical)

Other styles