How to format your references using the Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle (JCSM). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Marshall CR. ECOLOGY/PALEONTOLOGY. How stable are food webs during a mass extinction? Science 2015;350:38–39.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hughes S, Gurung S. Exploring the boundary between a siphon and barometer in a hypobaric chamber. Sci Rep 2014;4:4741.
A journal article with 3 authors
Silbergeld E, Lerman S, Hushka L. Ethics. Human health research ethics. Science 2004;305:949.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Neumann P, Koeniger N, Koeniger G, Tingek S, Kryger P, Moritz RF. Home-site fidelity in migratory honeybees. Nature 2000;406:474–475.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Eisner H. Managing Complex Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ; 2005.
An edited book
Bonitz M, Lopez J, Becker K, Thomsen H (eds.). Complex Plasmas: Scientific Challenges and Technological Opportunities. Springer International Publishing: Cham; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Newland MC. Methylmercury and Fish Nutrients in Experimental Models. In: Ceccatelli S, Aschner M, editors. Methylmercury and Neurotoxicity. Springer US: Boston, MA; 2012. pp. 55–90.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle.

Blog post
Hale T. Paris Syndrome: The Mental Disorder Caused By Visiting The City Of Love. IFLScience. 2017 Accessed 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Question Concerning Whether Funds Available Under Career Education Incentive Act Were Illegally Rescinded. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC; 1980.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Williams B. The Impact on Reunification for Families with Incarcerated Parents: A Policy Analysis of the Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Greenhouse L. Court Blocks Plans for New Gas Plant in New Jersey. New York Times. 2008;B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
AbbreviationJ. Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle
ISSN (print)2190-5991
ISSN (online)2190-6009
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Physiology (medical)

Other styles