How to format your references using the Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle (JCSM). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Jewkes R. HIV/AIDS. Gender inequities must be addressed in HIV prevention. Science 2010;329:145–147.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Girguis PR, Lee RW. Thermal preference and tolerance of alvinellids. Science 2006;312:231.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Matsunami H, Montmayeur JP, Buck LB. A family of candidate taste receptors in human and mouse. Nature 2000;404:601–604.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Ekstrom AD, Kahana MJ, Caplan JB, Fields TA, Isham EA, Newman EL et al. Cellular networks underlying human spatial navigation. Nature 2003;425:184–188.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Albright RD. Death of the Chesapeake. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ; 2013.
An edited book
1.
Wieferink A. Retargetable Processor System Integration into Multi-Processor System-on-Chip Platforms. Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Keyworth GA. Policy, Politics and Science in the White House (The Reagan Years). In: Pielke R, Klein RA, editors. Presidential Science Advisors: Perspectives and Reflections on Science, Policy and Politics. Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht; 2010. pp. 57–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle.

Blog post
1.
Davis J. New Frog Sex Position Observed In India. IFLScience. 2016https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/new-frog-sex-position-observed-in-india/. Accessed 30 October 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Federal Health Care: Increased Information System Sharing Could Improve Service, Reduce Costs. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC; 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Hong HJ. Acrolein Modification of Human Apolipoprotein A-I Impairs Binding to Phosphatidylglycerol and Lipopolysaccharide of Gram-Negative Bacteria. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Brantley B. Fears Both Small (Cats) and Large (Apocalypse). New York Times. 2017;C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
AbbreviationJ. Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle
ISSN (print)2190-5991
ISSN (online)2190-6009
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Physiology (medical)

Other styles