How to format your references using the Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle (JCSM). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Aarestrup F. Sustainable farming: Get pigs off antibiotics. Nature 2012;486:465–466.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hering JG, Ingold KM. Water management. Water resources management: what should be integrated? Science 2012;336:1234–1235.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tobie G, Lunine JI, Sotin C. Episodic outgassing as the origin of atmospheric methane on Titan. Nature 2006;440:61–64.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Greaves SJ, Wrede E, Goldberg NT, Zhang J, Miller DJ, Zare RN. Vibrational excitation through tug-of-war inelastic collisions. Nature 2008;454:88–91.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
French BA. Chronicles Through the Centuries. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK; 2016.
An edited book
Barnett AG. Analysing Seasonal Health Data. Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Epenoy R. Low-Thrust Transfers Between Libration Point Orbits Without Explicit Use of Manifolds. In: Bonnard B, Chyba M, editors. Recent Advances in Celestial and Space Mechanics. Springer International Publishing: Cham; 2016. pp. 143–178.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle.

Blog post
Andrews R. This Awkward Feathered Dinosaur Was Almost Blown Up By Dynamite. IFLScience. 2016 Accessed 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. High-Containment Laboratories: Recent Incidents of Biosafety Lapses. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC; 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cao L. Mathematical Modeling of Long-Term Productivity of Hydraulic- and HEG- Fractured Wells in Ultra-Low Permeability Reservoirs. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
MacFARQUHAR N. By Focusing on Syria, Putin Is Catering to an Audience at Home. New York Times. 2015;A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
AbbreviationJ. Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle
ISSN (print)2190-5991
ISSN (online)2190-6009
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Physiology (medical)

Other styles