How to format your references using the Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle (JCSM). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Wright J. Nanotechnology: Deliver on a promise. Nature 2014;509:S58-9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Strzepek RF, Harrison PJ. Photosynthetic architecture differs in coastal and oceanic diatoms. Nature 2004;431:689–692.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Fiorin G, Carnevale V, DeGrado WF. Structural biology. The flu’s proton escort. Science 2010;330:456–458.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Keeling L, Andersson L, Schütz KE, Kerje S, Fredriksson R, Carlborg O et al. Chicken genomics: feather-pecking and victim pigmentation. Nature 2004;431:645–646.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Arthur D. Little, Inc. Making EHS an Integral Part of Process Design. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ; 2010.
An edited book
1.
Chatterjee A, Yarlagadda S, Chakrabarti BK (eds.). Econophysics of Wealth Distributions: Econophys-Kolkata I. Springer: Milano; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Moussa R. Big-SeqDB-Gen: A Formal and Scalable Approach for Parallel Generation of Big Synthetic Sequence Databases. In: Nambiar R, Poess M, editors. Performance Evaluation and Benchmarking: Traditional to Big Data to Internet of Things: 7th TPC Technology Conference, TPCTC 2015, Kohala Coast, HI, USA, August 31 – September 4, 2015. Revised Selected Papers. Springer International Publishing: Cham; 2016. pp. 61–76.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle.

Blog post
1.
Fang J. Tiny Vibrating Hairs Help Bees Sense Electrical Signals Sent From Flowers. IFLScience. 2016.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Land Management Systems: BLM Faces Risks in Completing the Automated Land and Mineral Record System. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC; 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Emale JM. An examination of how conglomerates impact small-medium enterprises in their relationship. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Rothenberg B. The Matches at Indian Wells Come With a Generous Serving of Opulence. New York Times. 2017;SP6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
AbbreviationJ. Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle
ISSN (print)2190-5991
ISSN (online)2190-6009
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Physiology (medical)

Other styles