How to format your references using the Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle (JCSM). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Gupta S. Avoiding ambiguity. Nature 2001;412:589.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Ide M, Hidaka S. Tactile stimulation can suppress visual perception. Sci Rep 2013;3:3453.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Tang Z, Kotov NA, Giersig M. Spontaneous organization of single CdTe nanoparticles into luminescent nanowires. Science 2002;297:237–240.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Tu X, Manohar S, Jagota A, Zheng M. DNA sequence motifs for structure-specific recognition and separation of carbon nanotubes. Nature 2009;460:250–253.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Nemethy L. Business Exit Planning. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ; 2011.
An edited book
1.
Gutkowski W, Kowalewski TA (eds.). Mechanics of the 21st Century: Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Warsaw, Poland, 15–21 August 2004. Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Farina D, Laffranchi F, Ravanelli M, Borghesi A, Maroldi R. Imaging of the Lacrimal Drainage System and Interventional Radiology. In: Presutti L, Mattioli F, editors. Endoscopic Surgery of the Lacrimal Drainage System. Springer International Publishing: Cham; 2016. pp. 33–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. Declining Sperm Quality in Older Men Puts the Issue at the Centre of Fertility Debate. IFLScience. 2015https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/declining-sperm-quality-older-men-puts-issue-centre-fertility-debate/. Accessed 30 October 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Review of Estimate in Prime Contract N00019-71-C-0450 With Grumman Aerospace Corporation. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC; 1974.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Wosu UL. Geochemical Analysis of Late Pleistocene Sediments from Fossil Lake, Northern Lake County, Oregon. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Wagner J. Bruce Is Traded To IndiansFor Pitcher. New York Times. 2017;B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
AbbreviationJ. Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle
ISSN (print)2190-5991
ISSN (online)2190-6009
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Physiology (medical)

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