How to format your references using the Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle (JCSM). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Boss AP. Obituary: George W. Wetherill (1925-2006). Nature 2006;442:756.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Corma A, Serna P. Chemoselective hydrogenation of nitro compounds with supported gold catalysts. Science 2006;313:332–334.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Shin S-B, Golovkin M, Reddy ASN. A pollen-specific calmodulin-binding protein, NPG1, interacts with putative pectate lyases. Sci Rep 2014;4:5263.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Talapin DV, Shevchenko EV, Bodnarchuk MI, Ye X, Chen J, Murray CB. Quasicrystalline order in self-assembled binary nanoparticle superlattices. Nature 2009;461:964–967.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Martinelli RJ, Waddell JM, Rahschulte TJ. Program Management for Improved Business Results. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ; 2014.
An edited book
1.
Cristofaro ED, Murdoch SJ (eds.). Privacy Enhancing Technologies: 14th International Symposium, PETS 2014, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, July 16-18, 2014. Proceedings. Springer International Publishing: Cham; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
D’Onofrio M, Barbi E, De Robertis R, Principe F, Gallotti A, Martone E. Intraoperative Ultrasonography of the Pancreas. In: D’Onofrio M, editor. Ultrasonography of the Pancreas: Imaging and Pathologic Correlations. Springer: Milano; 2012. pp. 55–61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle.

Blog post
1.
Hamilton K. Fossil Evidence Reveals That Cancer In Humans Goes Back 1.7 Million Years. IFLScience. 2016https://www.iflscience.com/editors-blog/fossil-evidence-reveals-that-cancer-in-humans-goes-back-1-point-7-million-years/. Accessed 30 October 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Transportation Security: Efforts to Strengthen Aviation and Surface Transportation Security Continue to Progress, but More Work Remains. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC; 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Sener AC. Uncertainty analysis of geothermal energy economics. 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Gurley G. Losing Her Friends for the Love of Trump. New York Times. 2017;D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
AbbreviationJ. Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle
ISSN (print)2190-5991
ISSN (online)2190-6009
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Physiology (medical)

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