How to format your references using the Pakistan Veterinary Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pakistan Veterinary Journal (PKV). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Marchand AP, 2003. Chemistry. Diamondoid hydrocarbons--delving into nature’s bounty. Science 299:52–53.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brumfiel G and Knight J, 2003. Climate of conflict: in the shadow of war. Nature 426:748–749.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fraser CM, Eisen JA and Salzberg SL, 2000. Microbial genome sequencing. Nature 406:799–803.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gegear RJ, Casselman A, Waddell S, et al., 2008. Cryptochrome mediates light-dependent magnetosensitivity in Drosophila. Nature 454:1014–1018.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hagen J, 2017. Chemiereaktoren. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
2007. Complex Effects in Large Eddy Simulations. Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Petropoulos N and Maguire R, 2013. Match Fixing: Case Studies from Greece and Ireland. In: Match-Fixing in International Sports: Existing Processes, Law Enforcement, and Prevention Strategies (Haberfeld MR and Sheehan D, eds). Springer International Publishing: Cham, pp:89–99.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pakistan Veterinary Journal.

Blog post
Andrew E, 2015. Development And The Reef: The Rules Have Been Lax For Too Long. IFLScience. 2015 Available at (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1994. Highway Safety: Factors Affecting Involvement in Vehicle Crashes. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gomez-Zuebisch LC, 2010. A phenomenological exploration of the learning values derived from instructional short videos among adult learners. Doctoral dissertation. University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L, 2006. Court Puts Teeth in “Notice” Needed to Seize Property. New York Times A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Tesche, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Abdool Karim, 2014; Plotkin, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Brumfiel and Knight, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Fraser, Eisen, and Salzberg, 2000)
  • 4 or more authors: (Peña et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titlePakistan Veterinary Journal
ISSN (print)0253-8318
ISSN (online)2074-7764

Other styles