How to format your references using the Pakistan Veterinary Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pakistan Veterinary Journal (PKV). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macilwain C, 2013. The unlikely wisdom of Chairman Mao. Nature 495:143.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lehmann J and Sohi S, 2008. Comment on “Fire-derived charcoal causes loss of forest humus.” Science 321:1295; author reply 1295.
A journal article with 3 authors
López CA, de Vries AH and Marrink SJ, 2013. Computational microscopy of cyclodextrin mediated cholesterol extraction from lipid model membranes. Sci Rep 3:2071.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Oppenheimer M, O’Neill BC, Webster M, et al., 2007. Climate change. The limits of consensus. Science 317:1505–1506.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hanzo L, Liew TH and Yeap BL, 2005. Turbo Coding, Turbo Equalisation and Space-Time Coding. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK.
An edited book
2013. Colorectal Cancer Screening and Computerized Tomographic Colonography: A Comprehensive Overview. Springer: New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Suzuki Y and Suzuki R, 2014. Tactile Score, “Syoku-fuTM.” In: Tactile Score: A Knowledge Media for Tactile Sense (Suzuki R, ed). Springer Japan: Tokyo, pp:21–26.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pakistan Veterinary Journal.

Blog post
Andrew E, 2014. Chemical Treatment Restores Partial Vision to Blind Mice. IFLScience. 2014 Available at (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1990. Air Force ADP: Depot Maintenance System Development Risks Are High. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Teeter CM, 2010. Characterizing the Spatial Density Functions of Neural Arbors. Doctoral dissertation. University of California San Diego.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Kishkovsky S, 2005. Moscow Theater Hit Again by Fire. New York Times B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Macilwain, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Lehmann and Sohi, 2008; Macilwain, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lehmann and Sohi, 2008)
  • Three authors: (López, de Vries, and Marrink, 2013)
  • 4 or more authors: (Oppenheimer et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titlePakistan Veterinary Journal
ISSN (print)0253-8318
ISSN (online)2074-7764

Other styles