How to format your references using the Pakistan Veterinary Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pakistan Veterinary Journal (PKV). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Roses AD, 2000. Pharmacogenetics and the practice of medicine. Nature 405:857–865.
A journal article with 2 authors
Changeux J-P and Edelstein SJ, 2005. Allosteric mechanisms of signal transduction. Science 308:1424–1428.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gregoire LJ, Payne AJ and Valdes PJ, 2012. Deglacial rapid sea level rises caused by ice-sheet saddle collapses. Nature 487:219–222.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Vilkov O, Fedorov A, Usachov D, et al., 2013. Controlled assembly of graphene-capped nickel, cobalt and iron silicides. Sci Rep 3:2168.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Abutarbush SM, 2015. Illustrated Guide to Equine Diseases. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Ames, Iowa, USA.
An edited book
2013. Human Aspects in Ambient Intelligence: Contemporary Challenges and Solutions. Atlantis Press: Paris.
A chapter in an edited book
Mednicoff D, 2016. Change, Challenge, and Continuity in Qatari Development: Identity and Citizenship in the Fulcrum of Hyper-Globalization. In: Citizenship, Belonging, and Nation-States in the Twenty-First Century (Stokes-DuPass N and Fruja R, eds). Palgrave Macmillan US: New York, NY, pp:111–136.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pakistan Veterinary Journal.

Blog post
Luntz S, 2015. Bizarre Plant Resembles Human Finger. IFLScience. 2015 Available at (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1996. DOD Dependents Schools: Cost Issues Associated With the Special Education Program. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Knehans A, 2013. As you like it: The road to design. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg B, 2016. Kerber Loses Final and Bid for No. 1 Spot. New York Times D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Roses, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Changeux and Edelstein, 2005; Roses, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Changeux and Edelstein, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Gregoire, Payne, and Valdes, 2012)
  • 4 or more authors: (Vilkov et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titlePakistan Veterinary Journal
ISSN (print)0253-8318
ISSN (online)2074-7764

Other styles