How to format your references using the Pakistan Veterinary Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pakistan Veterinary Journal (PKV). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stirling A, 2010. Keep it complex. Nature 468:1029–1031.
A journal article with 2 authors
Georgianna DR and Mayfield SP, 2012. Exploiting diversity and synthetic biology for the production of algal biofuels. Nature 488:329–335.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang J, Ewing RC and Becker U, 2014. Average structure and local configuration of excess oxygen in UO(2+x). Sci Rep 4:4216.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
van Zoest T, Gaaloul N, Singh Y, et al., 2010. Bose-Einstein condensation in microgravity. Science 328:1540–1543.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anderson RJ, Groundwater PW, Todd A, et al., 2012. Antibacterial Agents. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK.
An edited book
2013. Attosecond Physics: Attosecond Measurements and Control of Physical Systems. Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Lupfer CR and Kanneganti T-D, 2011. The Role of Inflammasomes in Viral Infection. In: The Inflammasomes (Couillin I, Pétrilli V and Martinon F, eds). Springer: Basel, pp:51–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pakistan Veterinary Journal.

Blog post
Hale T, 2016. This Guy Built A Homemade Hoverbike In His Shed. IFLScience. 2016 Available at (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1996. Measuring Performance: The Advanced Technology Program and Private-Sector Funding. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Whitesides VJ, 2017. The Large Ensemble/European Classical Music Paradigm and African American-Originated Dance-Musicking: A Dispositival Analysis of U.S. Secondary Music Education. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines GG, 2016. Tapping ’70s TV to Expand a Comic Book Lineup. New York Times B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Stirling, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Georgianna and Mayfield, 2012; Stirling, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Georgianna and Mayfield, 2012)
  • Three authors: (Wang, Ewing, and Becker, 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (van Zoest et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titlePakistan Veterinary Journal
ISSN (print)0253-8318
ISSN (online)2074-7764

Other styles