How to format your references using the Pakistan Veterinary Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pakistan Veterinary Journal (PKV). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lauher JW, 2011. Chemistry. A versatile molecular trap built from hydrogen-bonded tiles. Science 333:415–416.
A journal article with 2 authors
Falkowski PG and Isozaki Y, 2008. Geology. The story of O2. Science 322:540–542.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lin J, Balabin IA and Beratan DN, 2005. The nature of aqueous tunneling pathways between electron-transfer proteins. Science 310:1311–1313.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Deppmann CD, Mihalas S, Sharma N, et al., 2008. A model for neuronal competition during development. Science 320:369–373.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Nahar L and Sarker SD, 2012. Steroid Dimers. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Chaudhry A, 2011. Analysis of Excitation and Ionization of Atoms and Molecules by Electron Impact. Springer: New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Spetich MA, Perry RW, Harper CA, et al., 2011. Fire in Eastern Hardwood Forests Through 14,000 Years. In: Sustaining Young Forest Communities: Ecology and Management of Early Successional Habitats in the Central Hardwood Region, USA (Greenberg C, Collins B and Thompson F III, eds). Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, pp:41–58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pakistan Veterinary Journal.

Blog post
Andrew E, 2014. Superhydrophobic Material Developed That Makes Water Bounce Like A Ball. IFLScience. 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1987. Department of Transportation: Enhancing Policy and Program Effectiveness Through Improved Management. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Reig MA, 2008. Cross-Dialectal Variability in Propositional Anaphora: A Quantitative and Pragmatic Study of Null Objects in Mexican and Peninsular Spanish. Doctoral dissertation. Ohio State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Krauss C, 2015. Breakdown at BP Refinery Strains Midwest Gas Prices. New York Times B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lauher, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Falkowski and Isozaki, 2008; Lauher, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Falkowski and Isozaki, 2008)
  • Three authors: (Lin, Balabin, and Beratan, 2005)
  • 4 or more authors: (Deppmann et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titlePakistan Veterinary Journal
ISSN (print)0253-8318
ISSN (online)2074-7764

Other styles