How to format your references using the Pakistan Veterinary Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pakistan Veterinary Journal (PKV). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sohi SP, 2012. Agriculture. Carbon storage with benefits. Science 338:1034–1035.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bininda-Emonds ORP and Purvis A, 2012. Comment on “Impacts of the Cretaceous Terrestrial Revolution and KPg extinction on mammal diversification.” Science 337:34; author reply 34.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ito K, Uno M and Nakamura Y, 2000. A tripeptide “anticodon” deciphers stop codons in messenger RNA. Nature 403:680–684.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Foukal P, Fröhlich C, Spruit H, et al., 2006. Variations in solar luminosity and their effect on the Earth’s climate. Nature 443:161–166.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hollins C, 2012. Basic Guide to Anatomy and Physiology for Dental Care Professionals. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.,: West Sussex, UK.
An edited book
2012. Architecture of Computing Systems – ARCS 2012: 25th International Conference, Munich, Germany, February 28 - March 2, 2012. Proceedings. Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Hatfield JL, 2014. Soil Degradation, Land Use, and Sustainability. In: Convergence of Food Security, Energy Security and Sustainable Agriculture (Songstad DD, Hatfield JL and Tomes DT, eds). Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, pp:61–74.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pakistan Veterinary Journal.

Blog post
Andrew E, 2015. Viruses Don’t Deserve Their Bad Rap: They’re The Unsung Heroes You Never See. IFLScience. 2015 Available at (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2011. Transportation Security Information Sharing: Stakeholders Generally Satisfied but TSA Could Improve Analysis, Awareness, and Accountability. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ashirgade A, 2010. Mechanistic study of the rubber-brass adhesion interphase. Doctoral dissertation. University of Cincinnati.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Leland J, 2016. Immersed in Scores, Concerts and Classes. New York Times MB2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sohi, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Bininda-Emonds and Purvis, 2012; Sohi, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bininda-Emonds and Purvis, 2012)
  • Three authors: (Ito, Uno, and Nakamura, 2000)
  • 4 or more authors: (Foukal et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titlePakistan Veterinary Journal
ISSN (print)0253-8318
ISSN (online)2074-7764

Other styles