How to format your references using the Pakistan Veterinary Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pakistan Veterinary Journal (PKV). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Scharmer G, 2009. Astronomy. Sunspot flows and filaments. Science 325:155–156.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chen A and Sooryakumar R, 2013. Patterned time-orbiting potentials for the confinement and assembly of magnetic dipoles. Sci Rep 3:3124.
A journal article with 3 authors
Xiao S, Zhou C and Yuan X, 2007. Palaeontology: undressing and redressing Ediacaran embryos. Nature 446:E9-10; discussion E10-1.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Iddan G, Meron G, Glukhovsky A, et al., 2000. Wireless capsule endoscopy. Nature 405:417.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Soustelle M, 2011. An Introduction to Chemical Kinetics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc: Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Estivalet M, 2008. The Engineering of Sport 7: Vol. 2. Springer: Paris.
A chapter in an edited book
Rémillard B, Hocquard A, Langlois H, et al., 2012. Optimal Hedging of American Options in Discrete Time. In: Numerical Methods in Finance: Bordeaux, June 2010 (Carmona RA, Del Moral P, Hu P, et al., eds). Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, pp:145–170.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pakistan Veterinary Journal.

Blog post
Carpineti A, 2017. NASA To Explore The Core Of A Failed Planet In Newly Announced Missions. IFLScience. 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1981. Disparities Still Exist in Who Gets Special Education. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lopez V, 2015. The Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978: A policy analysis. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly S, 2004. Annie, Get Your Calculator. New York Times 146.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Scharmer, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Chen and Sooryakumar, 2013; Scharmer, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chen and Sooryakumar, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Xiao, Zhou, and Yuan, 2007)
  • 4 or more authors: (Iddan et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titlePakistan Veterinary Journal
ISSN (print)0253-8318
ISSN (online)2074-7764

Other styles