How to format your references using the Pakistan Veterinary Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pakistan Veterinary Journal (PKV). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Johnson G, 2002. Signal transduction. Scaffolding proteins--more than meets the eye. Science 295:1249–1250.
A journal article with 2 authors
Politi Y and Weaver JC, 2015. Biomineralization. Built for tough conditions. Science 347:712–713.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nakamura K, Takahashi Y and Fujiwara T, 2014. Low-temperature excess heat capacity in fresnoite glass and crystal. Sci Rep 4:6523.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Acevedo-Whitehouse K, Gulland F, Greig D, et al., 2003. Inbreeding: Disease susceptibility in California sea lions. Nature 422:35.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Miller MA, 2005. Internet Technologies Handbook. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
2005. Grid Computing in Life Science: First International Workshop on Life Science Grid, LSGRID 2004, Kanazawa, Japan, May 31-June 1, 2004, Revised Selected and Invited Papers. Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Nwaga D, Jansa J, Angue MA, et al., 2010. The Potential of Soil Beneficial Micro-Organisms for Slash-and-Burn Agriculture in the Humid Forest Zone of Sub-Saharan Africa. In: Soil Biology and Agriculture in the Tropics (Dion P, ed). Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, pp:81–107.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pakistan Veterinary Journal.

Blog post
Carpineti A, 2017. Event Horizon Telescope To Begin Most Detailed Observation Of A Black Hole in April. IFLScience. 2017 Available at (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1999. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Customs Is Effectively Managing Its Year 2000 Program. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Calhoun GF, 2009. Limit theory for overfit models. Doctoral dissertation. University of California San Diego.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gorman J, 2016. Figaro, the Toolmaking Cockatoo. New York Times D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Johnson, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Johnson, 2002; Politi and Weaver, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Politi and Weaver, 2015)
  • Three authors: (Nakamura, Takahashi, and Fujiwara, 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Acevedo-Whitehouse et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titlePakistan Veterinary Journal
ISSN (print)0253-8318
ISSN (online)2074-7764

Other styles