How to format your references using the Nature Digest citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nature Digest. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ruvkun, G. Molecular biology. Glimpses of a tiny RNA world. Science 294, 797–799 (2001).
A journal article with 2 authors
Armbrust, E. V. & Palumbi, S. R. Marine biology. Uncovering hidden worlds of ocean biodiversity. Science 348, 865–867 (2015).
A journal article with 3 authors
Devine, J. A., Baker, K. D. & Haedrich, R. L. Fisheries: deep-sea fishes qualify as endangered. Nature 439, 29 (2006).
A journal article with 6 or more authors
Chen, H. et al. Avian flu: H5N1 virus outbreak in migratory waterfowl. Nature 436, 191–192 (2005).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Paultre, P. Dynamics of Structures. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2013).
An edited book
Transnational Inquiries and the Protection of Fundamental Rights in Criminal Proceedings: A Study in Memory of Vittorio Grevi and Giovanni Tranchina. (Springer, 2013).
A chapter in an edited book
Luo, J. & Chen, Y. Use of Expression Microarrays in Cancer Research. in Modern Molecular Biology: Approaches for Unbiased Discovery in Cancer Research (eds. Yegnasubramanian, S. & Isaacs, W. B.) 67–85 (Springer, 2010).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nature Digest.

Blog post
Taub, B. LSD-bunked: How Research Is Finally Separating The Facts From The Myths Surrounding Acid. IFLScience (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Mexican Trucking Wages. (1993).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schwartz, D. A. Safe Travels? An Examination of the Search and Rescue Policies and Capabilities in the Northwest Passage Region. (California State University, Long Beach, 2017).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. A Bit of Sunshine Returns at Last for Fans in the Twilight of an Era. New York Times D5 (2013).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleNature Digest
ISSN (print)1880-0556

Other styles