How to format your references using the Computing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Markham J (2014) Rare species occupy uncommon niches. Sci Rep 4:6012
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
van der Marel D, Sawatzky GA (2014) Physics. An optical twist for triplet superconductors. Science 345:138–139
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Schmittner A, Yoshimori M, Weaver AJ (2002) Instability of glacial climate in a model of the ocean- atmosphere-cryosphere system. Science 295:1489–1493
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1.
Jorgensen P, Nishikawa JL, Breitkreutz B-J, Tyers M (2002) Systematic identification of pathways that couple cell growth and division in yeast. Science 297:395–400

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Hartfuß H-J, Geist T (2013) Fusion Plasma Diagnostics with mm-Waves. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany
An edited book
1.
Cheptsov A, Brinkmann S, Gracia J, et al (2013) Tools for High Performance Computing 2012. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Keskitalo ECH (2009) “New Governance” in the Arctic and Its Role for Supporting Climate Change Adaptation. In: Koivurova T, Keskitalo ECH, Bankes N (eds) Climate Governance in the Arctic. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 97–116

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computing.

Blog post
1.
Davis J (2015) Possible Treatment for MERS Revealed. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/possible-treatment-mers-revealed/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office (1989) Serious Problems Continue to Trouble the Air Traffic Control Work Force. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Schick VR (2010) Examining the vulva: The relationship between female genital aesthetic perceptions and gynecological care. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Brantley B (2016) A Nation Born of Sniping, Squabbling and Deadlock: Helloo? New York Times C5

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputing
ISSN (print)0010-485X
ISSN (online)1436-5057
ScopeComputational Theory and Mathematics
Computer Science Applications
Software
Computational Mathematics
Numerical Analysis
Theoretical Computer Science

Other styles