How to format your references using the Computing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Firestein GS (2007) Biomedicine. Every joint has a silver lining. Science 315:952–953
A journal article with 2 authors
Vlaminck V, Bailleul M (2008) Current-induced spin-wave Doppler shift. Science 322:410–413
A journal article with 3 authors
Gaudelli NM, Long DH, Townsend CA (2015) β-Lactam formation by a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase during antibiotic biosynthesis. Nature 520:383–387
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Beck RD, Maroni P, Papageorgopoulos DC, et al (2003) Vibrational mode-specific reaction of methane on a nickel surface. Science 302:98–100

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Coenen T (2008) Essentials of Corporate Fraud. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Faist T, Schade J (2013) Disentangling Migration and Climate Change: Methodologies, Political Discourses and Human Rights. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Friberg J, Al-Rawi FNH (2016) Five Texts from Old Babylonian Mê-Turran (Tell Haddad), Ishchali and Shaduppûm (Tell Harmal) with Rectangular-Linear Problems for Figures of a Given Form. In: Al-Rawi FNH (ed) New Mathematical Cuneiform Texts. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 149–212

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computing.

Blog post
Luntz S (2014) Bizarre “Hybrid” Star Found. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1981) Local Coordination Prevents Duplication of Services at Federally Sponsored Indian Education Projects. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hoang V (2009) Software maintenance: A program slicer using cross referencer. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara S (2016) The City of Lights, When It Was First Lighted. New York Times CT8

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputing
ISSN (print)0010-485X
ISSN (online)1436-5057
ScopeComputational Theory and Mathematics
Computer Science Applications
Computational Mathematics
Numerical Analysis
Theoretical Computer Science

Other styles