How to format your references using the Computing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Rosenlof KH (2003) Atmospheric science. How water enters the stratosphere. Science 302:1691–1692
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Richards TA, Cavalier-Smith T (2005) Myosin domain evolution and the primary divergence of eukaryotes. Nature 436:1113–1118
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Schmitz D, Mellor J, Nicoll RA (2001) Presynaptic kainate receptor mediation of frequency facilitation at hippocampal mossy fiber synapses. Science 291:1972–1976
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1.
Rutter GM, Crain JN, Guisinger NP, et al (2007) Scattering and interference in epitaxial graphene. Science 317:219–222

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Bender HF (2002) Das Gefahrstoffbuch. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG
An edited book
1.
Bengtsson L, Bonnet R-M, Grinspoon D, et al (2013) Towards Understanding the Climate of Venus: Applications of Terrestrial Models to Our Sister Planet. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Novak JM, Armstrong DE, Browne B (2014) Managing and Mentoring your Educational Self. In: Armstrong DE, Browne B (eds) Leading For Educational Lives: Inviting and Sustaining Imaginative Acts of Hope in a Connected World. SensePublishers, Rotterdam, pp 53–67

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computing.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E (2015) Scientist Proposes That Black Holes are Harmless Holograms. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/space/black-holes-might-be-harmless/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office (1998) Student Loans: Limited Information Is Available to Determine How Students’ College Debt Affects Their School and Lifestyle Decisions. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Mayberry DS (2017) Total Relaxation Center, LLC. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Greenhouse L (2007) Before the Court: Are Munis Like Milk, or Garbage? New York Times C2

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputing
ISSN (print)0010-485X
ISSN (online)1436-5057
ScopeComputational Theory and Mathematics
Computer Science Applications
Software
Computational Mathematics
Numerical Analysis
Theoretical Computer Science

Other styles