How to format your references using the Computing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wilczek F (2005) In search of symmetry lost. Nature 433:239–247
A journal article with 2 authors
Jackson MG, Carlson RW (2011) An ancient recipe for flood-basalt genesis. Nature 476:316–319
A journal article with 3 authors
Cohen IG, Savulescu J, Adashi EY (2015) Medicine. Transatlantic lessons in regulation of mitochondrial replacement therapy. Science 348:178–180
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Sakatani T, Kaneda A, Iacobuzio-Donahue CA, et al (2005) Loss of imprinting of Igf2 alters intestinal maturation and tumorigenesis in mice. Science 307:1976–1978

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tolinski M (2011) Plastics and Sustainability. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Streffer C (2012) Radioactive Waste: Technical and Normative Aspects of its Disposal. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Timmis J, Andrews P (2007) A Beginners Guide to Artificial Immune Systems. In: Flower D, Timmis J (eds) In Silico Immunology. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp 47–62

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computing.

Blog post
Andrew D (2017) The Myth Of Romantic Love May Be Ruining Your Health. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2001) Customs Service Modernization: Results of Review of First Automated Commercial Environment Expenditure Plan. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hilker B (2010) Electric-field effects and interactions of dye-polymer systems. Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly C (2007) Lesson One: The Price the Contractor Quotes Is an Estimate. New York Times F4

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputing
ISSN (print)0010-485X
ISSN (online)1436-5057
ScopeComputational Theory and Mathematics
Computer Science Applications
Computational Mathematics
Numerical Analysis
Theoretical Computer Science

Other styles