How to format your references using the Nature Climate Change citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nature Climate Change. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gordon, R. G. Plate tectonics. The Antarctic connection. Nature 404, 139–140 (2000).
A journal article with 2 authors
Doumy, G. & DiMauro, L. F. Chemistry. Interrogating molecules. Science 322, 1194–1195 (2008).
A journal article with 3 authors
Yao, M.-C., Fuller, P. & Xi, X. Programmed DNA deletion as an RNA-guided system of genome defense. Science 300, 1581–1584 (2003).
A journal article with 6 or more authors
Mold, J. E. et al. Maternal alloantigens promote the development of tolerogenic fetal regulatory T cells in utero. Science 322, 1562–1565 (2008).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ersoy, O. K. Diffraction, Fourier Optics and Imaging. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2007).
An edited book
Amusia, M. Y. Theory of Heavy-Fermion Compounds: Theory of Strongly Correlated Fermi-Systems. vol. 182 (Springer International Publishing, 2015).
A chapter in an edited book
Kim, W. T., Kang, S. H. & Joo, E. K. Performance Improvement of Turbo Code Based on the Extrinsic Information Transition Characteristics. in Cryptography and Coding: 10th IMA International Conference, Cirencester, UK, December 19-21, 2005. Proceedings (ed. Smart, N. P.) 47–58 (Springer, 2005).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nature Climate Change.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Dark Grape Compound May Help The Body Burn Fat. IFLScience (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Consumers’ Location Data: Companies Take Steps to Protect Privacy, but Practices Are Inconsistent, and Risks May Not be Clear to Consumers. (2014).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Denney, V. P. Achieving a Competitive Advantage through Ethical Business Practices: An Ethnographical Case Study. (Northcentral University, 2014).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodgman, J. Bonus Advice From Judge John Hodgman. New York Times MM30 (2016).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleNature Climate Change
AbbreviationNat. Clim. Chang.
ISSN (print)1758-678X
ISSN (online)1758-6798
ScopeEnvironmental Science (miscellaneous)
Social Sciences (miscellaneous)

Other styles