How to format your references using the Nature Climate Change citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nature Climate Change. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sage, L. Exoplanets. Nature 513, 327 (2014).
A journal article with 2 authors
Nisbet, E. & Weiss, R. Atmospheric science. Top-down versus bottom-up. Science 328, 1241–1243 (2010).
A journal article with 3 authors
Laubach, M., Wessberg, J. & Nicolelis, M. A. Cortical ensemble activity increasingly predicts behaviour outcomes during learning of a motor task. Nature 405, 567–571 (2000).
A journal article with 6 or more authors
Shwetha, S. et al. Circulating miRNA profile in HCV infected serum: novel insight into pathogenesis. Sci. Rep. 3, 1555 (2013).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Minns, P. & Elliott, I. FSM-Based Digital Design Using Verilog HDL. (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2008).
An edited book
Wireless Sensor Networks for Developing Countries: First International Conference, WSN4DC, Jamshoro, Pakistan, April 24-26, 2013, Revised Selected Papers. vol. 366 (Springer, 2013).
A chapter in an edited book
Wu, X., You, X. & Wang, B. Two-Step Multidimensional ERKN Methods. in Structure-Preserving Algorithms for Oscillatory Differential Equations (eds. You, X. & Wang, B.) 121–149 (Springer, 2013).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nature Climate Change.

Blog post
Luntz, S. Cat Takes Stand Against Mountain Lion. IFLScience (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. VA Information Technology: Improvements Needed to Implement Legislative Reforms. (1998).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lintott, R. W. The manipulation of time perception in John Adams’s “Doctor Atomic”. (University of Maryland, College Park, 2010).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper, M. & Walsh, M. W. Distressed Cities Weigh Bold Tactics In a New Fiscal Era. New York Times A19 (2012).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleNature Climate Change
AbbreviationNat. Clim. Chang.
ISSN (print)1758-678X
ISSN (online)1758-6798
ScopeEnvironmental Science (miscellaneous)
Social Sciences (miscellaneous)

Other styles