How to format your references using the Natural Hazards citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Natural Hazards. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smith C (2003) Drug target validation: Hitting the target. Nature 422:341, 343, 345 passim
A journal article with 2 authors
Dalton R, Cyranoski D (2000) Baja peninsula claims five victims in tragic accident. Nature 404:533
A journal article with 3 authors
Okada D, Ozawa F, Inokuchi K (2009) Input-specific spine entry of soma-derived Vesl-1S protein conforms to synaptic tagging. Science 324:904–909
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Blom T, Franzén A, Heinegård D, Holmdahl R (2003) Comment on “The influence of the proinflammatory cytokine, osteopontin, on autoimmune demyelinating disease.” Science 299:1845; author reply 1845

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lincoln NB, Kneebone II, Macniven JAB, Morris RC (2011) Psychological Management of Stroke. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Richards J (ed) (2010) Mining, Society, and a Sustainable World, first. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Ni W, Huang Y, Li D, Wang Y (2008) Boosting over Groups and Its Application to Acronym-Expansion Extraction. In: Tang C, Ling CX, Zhou X, et al. (eds) Advanced Data Mining and Applications: 4th International Conference, ADMA 2008, Chengdu, China, October 8-10, 2008. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 27–38

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Natural Hazards.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Why Violent Psychopaths Don’t ‘Get’ Punishment. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2007) Applying Agreed-Upon Procedures: Highway Trust Fund Excise Taxes. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Norman CL (2015) Perceptions of non-traditional programs within Missouri school districts. Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Paulson M, Gelles D (2017) Where’s My Wonka Bar? New York Times C1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smith 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Dalton and Cyranoski 2000; Smith 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dalton and Cyranoski 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Blom et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleNatural Hazards
AbbreviationNat. Hazards (Dordr.)
ISSN (print)0921-030X
ISSN (online)1573-0840
ScopeEarth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
Atmospheric Science
Water Science and Technology

Other styles