How to format your references using the Natural Hazards citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Natural Hazards. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tate CG (2010) Biochemistry. Membrane protein gymnastics. Science 328:1644–1645
A journal article with 2 authors
MacLeod DA, Morse AP (2014) Visualizing the uncertainty in the relationship between seasonal average climate and malaria risk. Sci Rep 4:7264
A journal article with 3 authors
Lu D, Searles MA, Klug A (2003) Crystal structure of a zinc-finger-RNA complex reveals two modes of molecular recognition. Nature 426:96–100
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Wu Z, Xie X, Li P, et al (2013) Equilibrious strand exchange promoted by DNA conformational switching. Sci Rep 3:1121

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bishop CA (2015) Roll-to-Roll Vacuum Deposition of Barrier Coatings. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Leal Filho W (ed) (2011) The Economic, Social and Political Elements of Climate Change. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Aucher G, Herzig A (2011) Exploring the Power of Converse Events. In: Girard P, Roy O, Marion M (eds) Dynamic Formal Epistemology. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 51–74

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Natural Hazards.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) The Mathematics Of Pixar Movies. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1995) Global Warming: Limitations of General Circulation Models and Costs of Modeling Efforts. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Farrell BM (2010) Body composition changes and work-efficiency effects from diet modification and incorporation of an at-home exercise regimen. Doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M (1993) Clinton Adds to Government to Help Him Subtract. New York Times A18

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Tate 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Tate 2010; MacLeod and Morse 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (MacLeod and Morse 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Wu et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleNatural Hazards
AbbreviationNat. Hazards (Dordr.)
ISSN (print)0921-030X
ISSN (online)1573-0840
ScopeEarth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
Atmospheric Science
Water Science and Technology

Other styles