How to format your references using the Natural Hazards citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Natural Hazards. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ostriker JP (2005) Obituary: John Norris Bahcall 1935-2005. Nature 437:43
A journal article with 2 authors
Veigel C, Schmidt CF (2009) Biochemistry. Friction in motor proteins. Science 325:826–827
A journal article with 3 authors
Bánsági T Jr, Vanag VK, Epstein IR (2011) Tomography of reaction-diffusion microemulsions reveals three-dimensional Turing patterns. Science 331:1309–1312
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Huang Y, Duan Y, Ding Y, et al (2014) Versatile, kinetically controlled, high precision electrohydrodynamic writing of micro/nanofibers. Sci Rep 4:5949

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Steland A (2012) Financial Statistics and Mathematical Finance. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Wu A (2008) Granular Dynamic Theory and Its Applications. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Blumenfeld H (2014) What Is a Seizure Network? Long-Range Network Consequences of Focal Seizures. In: Scharfman HE, Buckmaster PS (eds) Issues in Clinical Epileptology: A View from the Bench. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 63–70

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Natural Hazards.

Blog post
Hamilton K (2014) 12 Unimpressed Comments From Peer Reviewers. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1990) Pell Grants: How the Department of Education Estimates Program Costs. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wirtz Y (2017) Strain Variation between the Monterey and Sisquoc Formations, Southern Santa Maria Basin, California, USA: Implications for Structural Assessment of Fold and Thrust Belts. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodgman J (2017) Bonus Advice From Judge John Hodgman. New York Times MM24

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ostriker 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Ostriker 2005; Veigel and Schmidt 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Veigel and Schmidt 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Huang et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleNatural Hazards
AbbreviationNat. Hazards (Dordr.)
ISSN (print)0921-030X
ISSN (online)1573-0840
ScopeEarth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
Atmospheric Science
Water Science and Technology

Other styles