How to format your references using the Applied Petrochemical Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Petrochemical Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Perz SG (2014) Sustainable development: The promise and perils of roads. Nature 513:178–179
A journal article with 2 authors
Rohde PP, Dowling JP (2015) QUANTUM OPTICS. The on-ramp to the all-optical quantum information processing highway. Science 349:696
A journal article with 3 authors
Donoso M, Collins AGE, Koechlin E (2014) Human cognition. Foundations of human reasoning in the prefrontal cortex. Science 344:1481–1486
A journal article with 5 or more authors
De Wilde Y, Formanek F, Carminati R, et al (2006) Thermal radiation scanning tunnelling microscopy. Nature 444:740–743

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rhee MY (2013) Wireless Mobile Internet Security. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Aiguier M, Bretaudeau F, Krob D (2010) Complex Systems Design & Management: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Complex System Design & Management CSDM 2010. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Sheldon N, Wallace M (2014) Enhancing Career Pathways. In: Short T, Harris R (eds) Workforce Development: Strategies and Practices. Springer, Singapore, pp 45–58

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Petrochemical Research.

Blog post
Luntz S (2015) Extinct Rodents Of Unusual Size Discovered In Timor. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1975) Assessing the Federal Program for Strengthening Developing Institutions of Higher Education. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Trichon MC (2010) Self-Help Conferences for People Who Stutter: An Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Widdicombe B (2017) Humming Along With the Dead. New York Times ST1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Petrochemical Research
AbbreviationAppl. Petrochem. Res.
ISSN (print)2190-5525
ISSN (online)2190-5533
ScopeEnergy Engineering and Power Technology

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