How to format your references using the Applied Petrochemical Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Petrochemical Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Michel-Kerjan E (2012) How resilient is your country? Nature 491:497
A journal article with 2 authors
Lee SC, Lee SJ (2014) Uptake of liquid from wet surfaces by the brush-tipped proboscis of a butterfly. Sci Rep 4:6934
A journal article with 3 authors
Koga K, Tanaka H, Zeng XC (2000) First-order transition in confined water between high-density liquid and low-density amorphous phases. Nature 408:564–567
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Guo D-Y, Shan C-X, Qu S-N, Shen D-Z (2014) Highly sensitive ultraviolet photodetectors fabricated from ZnO quantum dots/carbon nanodots hybrid films. Sci Rep 4:7469

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Windom CA Sr, Gaidhani H, Fontana A (2010) Virtualizing. Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, IN, USA
An edited book
Hu B, Morasch K, Pickl S, Siegle M (2011) Operations Research Proceedings 2010: Selected Papers of the Annual International Conference of the German Operations Research Society. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Sarnowsky J (2007) Concepts of Impetus and the History of Mechanics. In: Laird WR, Roux S (eds) Mechanics and Natural Philosophy Before the Scientific Revolution. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 121–145

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Petrochemical Research.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Coffee Lovers Beware: Climate Change May Affect Your Brew. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2006) Abstinence Education: Efforts to Assess the Accuracy and Effectiveness of Federally Funded Programs. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McCarter KM (2008) The effect of auditory stimulation on learners with different learning styles. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Powell M (2017) Zen Phil Exits The Garden. The Knicks Will Endure. New York Times B9

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Petrochemical Research
AbbreviationAppl. Petrochem. Res.
ISSN (print)2190-5525
ISSN (online)2190-5533
ScopeEnergy Engineering and Power Technology

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