How to format your references using the National Academy Science Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for National Academy Science Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Carroll SB (2001) Chance and necessity: the evolution of morphological complexity and diversity. Nature 409:1102–1109
A journal article with 2 authors
Rathmell JC, Newgard CB (2009) Biochemistry. A glucose-to-gene link. Science 324:1021–1022
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhao W, Luo J, Jiao S (2014) Comprehensive characterization of cancer subtype associated long non-coding RNAs and their clinical implications. Sci Rep 4:6591
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Brent LJN, Heilbronner SR, Horvath JE, et al (2013) Genetic origins of social networks in rhesus macaques. Sci Rep 3:1042

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Joyner M (2009) Integration Marketing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Hvam L (2008) Product Customization. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Ito M (2016) Cardion.spec: An Approach to Improve the Requirements Specification Written in the Natural Language Through the Formal Method. In: Kreiner C, O’Connor RV, Poth A, Messnarz R (eds) Systems, Software and Services Process Improvement: 23rd European Conference, EuroSPI 2016, Graz, Austria, September 14-16, 2016, Proceedings. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 58–69

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for National Academy Science Letters.

Blog post
Fang J (2014) Most Precise Images Ever Of The Early Universe Revealed. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1979) Review of the Administration of Research and Demonstration Grants by the Rehabilitation Services Administration. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Markarian LA (2010) Strengths, challenges, and quality of life of ALS caregivers. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S (2006) Major Russian TV Station Is Accused of Censorship. New York Times C3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNational Academy Science Letters
AbbreviationNatl. Acad. Sci. Lett.
ISSN (print)0250-541X
ISSN (online)2250-1754
ScopeEngineering (miscellaneous)

Other styles