How to format your references using the National Academy Science Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for National Academy Science Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Clary DC (2013) Chemistry. 100 years of atomic theory. Science 341:244–245
A journal article with 2 authors
Poage MA, Chamberlain CP (2006) Geochemistry. Rising mountain ranges. Science 311:478–479
A journal article with 3 authors
Baran PS, Maimone TJ, Richter JM (2007) Total synthesis of marine natural products without using protecting groups. Nature 446:404–408
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Suzuki T, Hasan Z, Funahashi Y, et al (2009) Impact of anode microstructure on solid oxide fuel cells. Science 325:852–855

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ng R (2005) Drugs. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Alfirević N, Burušić J, Pavičić J, Relja R (2016) School Effectiveness and Educational Management: Towards a South-Eastern Europe Research and Public Policy Agenda. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Lepuschitz W, Groessing B, Axinia E, Merdan M (2013) Phase Agents and Dynamic Routing for Batch Process Automation. In: Mařík V, Lastra JLM, Skobelev P (eds) Industrial Applications of Holonic and Multi-Agent Systems: 6th International Conference, HoloMAS 2013, Prague, Czech Republic, August 26-28, 2013. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 37–48

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for National Academy Science Letters.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Here’s What London’s Underground System Actually Looks Like. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2011) Next Generation Air Transportation System: Linking Test Facilities Can Help Leverage Resources and Improve Technology Transfer Efforts. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stadalis MD (2015) Development of a Conceptual Model and Instrument for Sustaining Successful School Reculturing and Reform Efforts. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rojas R, Southall A (2015) 5 From Baruch College Face Murder Charges in 2013 Fraternity Hazing. New York Times A18

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNational Academy Science Letters
AbbreviationNatl. Acad. Sci. Lett.
ISSN (print)0250-541X
ISSN (online)2250-1754
ScopeEngineering (miscellaneous)

Other styles