How to format your references using the Disability and Health Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Disability and Health Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cameron A. Eric H. Davidson (1937-2015). Nature. 2015;526(7572):196.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nishiizumi K, Caffee MW. Beryllium-10 from the Sun. Science. 2001;294(5541):352-354.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kotiaho JS, Simmons LW, Tomkins JL. Towards a resolution of the lek paradox. Nature. 2001;410(6829):684-686.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Hodgkin ST, Oppenheimer BR, Hambly NC, Jameson RF, Smartt SJ, Steele IA. Infrared spectrum of an extremely cool white-dwarf star. Nature. 2000;403(6765):57-59.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Prutchi D, Prutchi SR. Exploring Quantum Physics Through Hands-On Projects. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Alvarado JJ, Solis-Marin FA, eds. Echinoderm Research and Diversity in Latin America. Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
He Y, Dong J, Bai R. The Evaluation Model of Financial Competitiveness in Telecom Enterprises. In: Zhou Q, ed. Advances in Applied Economics, Business and Development: International Symposium, ISAEBD 2011, Dalian, China, August 6-7, 2011, Proceedings, Part II. Communications in Computer and Information Science. Springer; 2011:24-32.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Disability and Health Journal.

Blog post
Fang J. Centuries-Old Skeletons Reveal How Dissection Tools Improved. IFLScience. Published February 18, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Head Start: Comprehensive Approach to Identifying and Addressing Risks Could Help Prevent Grantee Financial Management Weaknesses. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Davis TE. Sedimentation Solutions for the Port of Gulfport, MS. Doctoral dissertation. Mississippi State University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Qiu L. Trump Claims Undue Credit On an Arsenal. New York Times. August 9, 2017:A7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleDisability and Health Journal
AbbreviationDisabil. Health J.
ISSN (print)1936-6574
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Other styles