How to format your references using the Lasers in Medical Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Lasers in Medical Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Sterman JD (2008) Economics. Risk communication on climate: mental models and mass balance. Science 322:532–533
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Irvine RF, Denton RM (2011) Cell biology. Pyro-technic control of metabolism. Science 334:770–771
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Marston JO, Riker PW, Thoroddsen ST (2014) Generation of ultra-sound during tape peeling. Sci Rep 4:4326
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1.
Potter BA, Beaudoin AB, Haynes CV, et al (2018) Arrival routes of first Americans uncertain. Science 359:1224–1225

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Li FM, Nathan A, Wu Y, Ong BS (2011) Organic Thin Film Transistor Integration. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany
An edited book
1.
Giacobini M, Brabazon A, Cagnoni S, et al (2008) Applications of Evolutionary Computing: EvoWorkshops 2008: EvoCOMNET, EvoFIN, EvoHOT, EvoIASP, EvoMUSART, EvoNUM, EvoSTOC, and EvoTransLog, Naples, Italy, March 26-28, 2008. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Cohen R, Wang T (2014) GUI Design for Android Apps, Part 4: Graphic Interface and Touchscreen Input. In: Wang T (ed) GUI Design for Android Apps. Apress, Berkeley, CA, pp 105–133

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Lasers in Medical Science.

Blog post
1.
Luntz S (2015) Global Warming Could Lead to European Cooling. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office (1996) Guaranty Agency Finances. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Roy R (2013) “Jagoron: Awakening” to Gender in Non Governmental Organizations in Contemporary Bengal. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Kenigsberg B (2017) Alina. New York Times C11

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleLasers in Medical Science
AbbreviationLasers Med. Sci.
ISSN (print)0268-8921
ISSN (online)1435-604X
ScopeDermatology
Surgery

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