How to format your references using the Lasers in Medical Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Lasers in Medical Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kreeger K (2003) Stacking the deck. Nature 422:784–785
A journal article with 2 authors
Shimamoto T, Togo T (2012) Geophysics. Earthquakes in the lab. Science 338:54–55
A journal article with 3 authors
Frederickson ME, Greene MJ, Gordon DM (2005) Ecology: “Devil’s gardens” bedevilled by ants. Nature 437:495–496
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Yu B, Edstrom WC, Benach J, et al (2006) Crystal structures of catalytic complexes of the oxidative DNA/RNA repair enzyme AlkB. Nature 439:879–884

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Solomon R (2016) The Art of Client Service. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Liu NC, Wang Q, Cheng Y (2011) Paths to a World-Class University: Lessons from Practices and Experiences. SensePublishers, Rotterdam
A chapter in an edited book
Gatehouse A, Ferry N (2012) Successes and Failures in Plant-Insect Interactions: Is it Possible to Stay One Step Ahead of the Insects? In: Smagghe G, Diaz I (eds) Arthropod-Plant Interactions: Novel Insights and Approaches for IPM. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 89–126

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Lasers in Medical Science.

Blog post
Davis J (2016) Animal Rights Activists Free Captive Penguin Into The Ocean, Probably Resulting In Its Death. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1990) Biotechnology: Processing Delays Continue for Growing Backlog of Patent Applications. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Maddox CE (2012) Postcolonial play: Encounters with sport and physical culture in contemporary India. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Apuzzo M, Rosenberg M (2017) Sessions May Be Asked About Reports of Meeting. New York Times A11

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleLasers in Medical Science
AbbreviationLasers Med. Sci.
ISSN (print)0268-8921
ISSN (online)1435-604X

Other styles