How to format your references using the Lasers in Medical Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Lasers in Medical Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Loder N (2000) Director of Wellcome centre resigns over damning report. Nature 404:696
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Lindsay ME, Dietz HC (2011) Lessons on the pathogenesis of aneurysm from heritable conditions. Nature 473:308–316
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Messer H, Zinevich A, Alpert P (2006) Environmental monitoring by wireless communication networks. Science 312:713
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1.
Chang C-Y, Krishnan T, Wang H, et al (2014) Non-antibiotic quorum sensing inhibitors acting against N-acyl homoserine lactone synthase as druggable target. Sci Rep 4:7245

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
French BA (2016) Chronicles Through the Centuries. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
1.
Kar S (2015) Industrial and Labor Economics: Issues in Developing and Transition Countries. Springer India, New Delhi
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Awange JL, Grafarend EW, Paláncz B, Zaletnyik P (2010) Polynomial resultants. In: Grafarend EW, Paláncz B, Zaletnyik P (eds) Algebraic Geodesy and Geoinformatics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 49–62

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Lasers in Medical Science.

Blog post
1.
Andrews R (2015) According To NASA, There’s A 99.9% Probability Of A Significant Earthquake Hitting Los Angeles By 2018. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office (1985) The Job Training Partnership Act: An Analysis of Support Cost Limits and Participant Characteristics. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Stoecker K (2013) Transfer of Topic-Prominence in Chinese-English Interlanguage. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Yablonsky L (2007) Hotel Rooms Become Overnight Stars. New York Times AR22

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleLasers in Medical Science
AbbreviationLasers Med. Sci.
ISSN (print)0268-8921
ISSN (online)1435-604X
ScopeDermatology
Surgery

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